History Of Computer Architecture

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ABSTRACT:

Computer architecture, like other architecture, is the art of determining the needs of the user of a structure and then designing to meet those needs as effectively as possible within economic and technological constraints.

INTRODUCTION: computer architecture is a set of disciplines that describe the functionality, organization and implementation of computer systems. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In other descriptions computer architecture involves instruction set architecture design, microarchitecture design, logic design, and implementation.

OLDEN AGE:

The earliest computer architectures were designed
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SUB CATEGORIES: The discipline of computer architecture has three main subcategories

1. Instruction Set Architecture, or ISA. The ISA defines the machine code that a processor reads and acts upon as well as the word size, memory address modes, processor registers, and data formats.
2. Microarchitecture, or computer organization describes how a particular processor will implement the ISA The size of a computer's CPU cache for instance, is an organizational issue that generally has nothing to do with the ISA.
3. System Design includes all of the other hardware components within a computing system. These include: 1. Data processing other than the CPU, such as direct memory access (DMA) 2. Other issues such as virtualization, multiprocessing and software features
DESIGN:
The purpose is to design a computer that maximizes performance while keeping power consumption in check, costs low relative to the amount of expected performance, and is also very reliable. For this, many aspects are to be considered which
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Millions of cell phones are shipped each day and they are increasing in functionality. The “power wall” and the extremes in computer size mean that the old guidelines are out.the window, so, if history is any guide, we’re entering an era of increasing importance for academic computer architecture.

EVALUATION TECHNIQUE: Two important themes throughout: the major concepts and design philosophies of computer architecture and organization, and analytic modeling of computer performance. A number of performance models and evaluation techniques and user instruction set design--including RISC architecture, pipelined processors, input/output techniques, queuing modes, and extended instruction set architectures. A unique feature of its memory-centric approach--memory systems are discussed before processor implementations, computer architecture and implementation.

CONCLUSION: Computer Architecture is the field that designs computers, which sets the foundation for the entire IT industry. Thus, in areas where there is tremendous consensus on the guidelines on what to do, computer architects at Intel and IBM usually lead the way. When the directions are less clear, academics are often the path breakers even though they have fewer

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