The rotation of earth around its own axis is responsible for cyclic changes in environment basically by causing changes in variation in light and temperature. Circadian clocks present in almost all organisms ranging from bacteria to Humans helps in anticipating these changes and adapting accordingly (1). Though the biological processes present in circadian cycle may change according to the ecological niche of the species but the molecular basis shows that these are evolutionarily related. The coordinated feedback activity of transcriptional /translational loops present in various pacemaker cells is responsible for the activity of circadian clocks (2). In Drosophila Melanogaster, this molecular clock is located in a circadian network of 150 neurons in adult brain and coordinated activity of whole network is important for responses under different environmental stimuli while under constant conditions the circadian locomotors activity depends on 8 neurons which are located on the accessory medulla on each side of the adult brain called small and large lateral ventral neurons (sLNvs and ILNvs respectively) (3, 4).
1.0 Introduction 1.1 Natural honeycombs- formation and features Natural honeycomb is constructed by the honeybees. It has a hexagonal geometry. Each cell is a perfect hexagon which imparts various properties to the honeycomb1. Karihaloo and co-workers studied the formation of hexagonal cells of these honeycombs. They observed that initially the cells were circular in shape (Fig.
According to David, Kevin and Emily’s (2015) research, it also points out that wild bees can support pollination of multiple plant species owing to the bees’ physique, numbers and behavior of foraging on same plant at one time. The physique of bees is easy for bees to catch pollen grains while flying to the next plant. Bees, especially honeybees, use body hair to transport the pollen and leave enough pollen on the new flower for pollination. Nonetheless, some plants like strawberry need around 20 pollen grains to ensure the fertilization of the flower’s eggs. Then, the great numbers of bees and the foraging constancy behavior which bees will visit the same types of flowers and work until the pollen or nectar can be found that can help to ensure all seeds will
Abbreviations SCN Suprachiasmatic nucleus RTH Retinohypothalamic tract PER Period homolog BMAL1 Brain and Muscle Arnt Like Protein 1 CLOCK Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput CRY Cryptochrome REV-ERB-α Reverse erythroblastosis virus α ROR α/γ Retinoid-related orphan receptor α/γ FAA Food-anticipatory activity NPY Neuropeptide Y AgRP Agouti-related protein MCH Melanin concentrating hormone CART Cocain amphetamine-regulated transcript POMC Pro-opiomelanocortin MSH Melanocortin HDL High density lipoprotein) VLDL Very low density lipoprotein). Abstract Study objective This study investigates the possible influence of the biological clock on body weight with regard to the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Methods Search engine and databases Google Scholar, Wageningen library Global search, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, were searched for this literature study. Included studies were any term of the circadian clock in relation to weight with the use of human or
Jonas Ebbesson’s approach of examining the different laws protecting the environment seems at first sight a bit uncommon (at least for lawyers). Instead of first looking into the different sources of law on a national and international basis, he picks out one specific species, the honey buzzard, and explains how this migratory bird is legally protected in all the different regions and countries it visits throughout its journey. The honey buzzard is what could be called a “globalised species”: it migrates across large areas from Europe to Western Africa and thereby naturally crosses a number of borders. Obviously its survival depends on adequate living conditions in all these areas. The wild population of the honey buzzard is thought to be exposed
Nature’s circadian rhythms are governed by earth’s day/night cycle. Circadian rhythms are like an “internal clock” that regulates the 24- hour cycle of biological processes in humans, animals and plants. In humans there are patterns of brain wave activity, hormone production, cell regeneration, and other biological activities linked to this 24-hour cycle. In order to bring our body, mind, emotions and spirit into balance, it is very important to be in tune with these rhythms. If we are out of sync with them, it is like trying to swim upstream.
Honey Bees, those cute little insects that buzz their way around your picnic basket during the summertime. Bees don’t only buzz about and produce the golden honey we love to consume but, these cute insects are very important pollinators such as the bats, birds, butterflies, and bumblebees. Bees pollinate up to 30% of the worlds crop yields, many of these crops are our favourite foods such as: Cucumber , Muskmelon, cantaloupe, Nectarine, Peach, Pear, Plum, prune, Pumpkin,the list of fruits, nuts and flowers goes on and on. Therefore this research task is aimed at investigating whether or not survival of the human population is greatly dependant on the existence of bee populations. The words ‘human survival’ relate to how bees are known to
The homeostatic sleep driver expands the sleep need as the time of alertness lengthens while the sleep/wake cycles are directed by the circadian system (internal clock). Adolescents and young adults physiologically have a tendency to have a deferred circadian preference and they are called as “night owls”. The irregular sleep plan as the catching up sleep during the weekends is an essential indication of a delayed circadian. High school and college students generally have longer sleep time on the weekends because they sleep 1-3 hours later during the school days. A study shows that weekday sleep times kept on deferring until around 19 years old, with weekend bedtimes remaining later until the mid
Flowers combine the electric information with bright colours to attract insects. Remarkably bees and wasps are able to self medicate their hives.they understand where medicine are, how to mix them and specifically where to apply them at times of fungal infections. Bees show emotions;-when stressed they become pessimistic with increased expectatons of bad outcomes.they have altered neuro chemicals such as dopamine,serotonin and octopamine associated with depression in vertebrates and humans. If we consider the structure of the bee’s brain,it has one million neurons with forty different types of neurons.the mushroom body (20% of their brain) integrates multiple senses and sends value-based information to other parts of the
These Giant Wild Bees are three times longer than common giant fly. Its nectar source is forest-orchard. The age of the beehive is harvested in about 3 months that’s why it is called fresh honey and that is the reason of its light color. The reason of its citrusy and sweet taste is because the nectar source also came from mango orchards and citrus orchards. Base on the conducted Focus Group Discussion and Beta Sales.