Ever since ancient times, humans have been exploiting the fermentation process to produce alcoholic beverages and other acid-based foods. Alcohol has been a valuable item for thousands of years which has had a central place in the markets of ancient civilizations. Alcohol has been a prime influencer of human culture from the very beginning, fuelling the development of things such as the arts and religion. Fermentation itself precedes human history. Rice wine has been consumed in China for at least 9,000 years; a chemical residue found in a jar is the oldest known proof of a deliberately fermented beverage (Penn Museum, 2017). But the influence of alcohol and fermentation most likely extends even deeper into prehistory. In today’s modern world …show more content…
As the temperature increases, so does the rate of reaction (Worthington, 2018). Figure 3 shows the typical change in an enzyme's activity with increasing temperature. The enzyme activity gradually increases with temperature up to around 37ºC, or body temperature. Then, as the temperature continues to rise, the rate of reaction falls rapidly as heat energy denatures the enzyme. The fermentation rate at high temperatures will be low because high temperatures are lethal to yeast. Therefore, the optimum temperature for fermantion is around 37C, anything lower than 37C and the enzymes haven’t achieved their maximum possible activation energy but anything higher than 37C and the enzymes move too fast and denature. Fermentation is also affected by pH levels. Yeast preforms better in more acidic conditions, in specific its optimum pH is around 5 (ALevelNotes, 2016). This is due to the fact that yeast has evolved to digest the sugars that are found in nature (Biology Online, 2006) . Most natural sugars are found in fruits, which also contain acids such as citric acid. Thus, yeast cells have evolved to favour a slightly acid medium and fermentation progresses best in the pH range 4.5 to 5.5. Increasing or decreasing the pH too much causes the enzymes to stop comepletly and denature. Therefore, slightly acidic conditions are more favourable to fermantion due to yeasts preferring acidic conditions. Another factor that affects fermantion is the structure and type of the sugar present. Glucose would be the most efficient sugar due to the fact it doesn’t require any additional energy to convert it and can be directly used in the glycolysis cycle. This means that monosaccharides are more efficient at fermantion due to the fact that they are easily broken down into glucose. Thus, this would imply that sugars that have a polysaccharides structure are the least
A History of the World in 6 Glasses, by Tom Standage, discusses the influence of various drinks on certain events and throughout the course of history. The drinks we read about in this book are beer, wine, spirits, tea and (from the epilogue) water. The overall purpose of this book is to explain and prove that each of these drinks had a profound effect on the world. Tom Standage is a digital editor and an author who wrote a plethora of books on an array of events and times throughout history. That being said, Standage’s work can be trusted and recommended as he is a qualified writer.
In addition, beer was much more safer to drink than water. This is because beer was boiled and water quickly became contaminated. It is clear why the author deemed beer an important drink that helped humanity develop from the neolithic time period to modern ways of live. In addition, Standage noted the importance of wine in the classical (600 BCE-600 CE). To the Greeks and Romans wine symbolizes wealth and power.
LABORATORY REPORT Activity: Enzyme Activity Name: Natalie Banc Instructor: Elizabeth Kraske Date: 09.22.2016 Predictions 1. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at pH 6 2. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at 50 °C (122 °F) 3. Sucrase activity increases with increasing sucrose concentration Materials and Methods Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2.
Each drink is still relevant in today 's world therefore allowing the audience to relate back to the earliest of times using drinks that are still a part of our daily lives. By using something so ordinary to teach something as remarkable as the history of our world, Standage displays his creativity as an author through this book. The book begins in ancient Mesopotamia, during the neolithic revolution, when the first civilizations developed. Beer was discovered
A History of the World in 6 Glasses by Tom Standage is not the typical history read that one might expect. To some who find reading history books quite tedious and overwhelming, this book is for you. Standage divides his book into 6 main sections via beverages: Beer, Wine, Spirits, Coffee, Tea and Coca-Cola. These drinks, which all started as a form of medicine, not only have great affects on today’s social culture but have also affected the historical spread of technology, religion, exploration, trade, slavery, and noteworthy worldwide events that changed society. As Standage describes it, Beer was a representation of both liquid wealth and health during the early civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia.
A History of the World in 6 Glasses Did you know if you went more than a few days without providing your body with fluids you could possibly die? In the book A History of the World in 6 Glasses, by Tom Standage, world history can be divided into 6 different beverages that chart the flow of world history; beer, wine, spirits, coffee, tea, and cola. Not only are drinks vital for our health drinks have played a variety of roles in history. Yes, we do consume drinks to quench our thirst, but they have provided humans over the past ten thousand years with social status, currency, celebration, and so much more. The type of drink you drank whether it is wine or beer could determine if you were of the elite.
As beer became a widespread beverage it began to impact the cultures it came in contact with. First, due to the long fermentation period of beer, and the need for more cereal grains to support a larger population, it served as a factor in the change to agriculture and sedentary societies (21). Cities surrounded by grain fields began to develop across Mesopotamia and Egypt and could support a much larger population. Also, as beer became the beverage of choice, disease decreased because beer was made with boiled water that commonly killed the bacteria found in natural contaminated cold-water sources (21). The creation of taxes also directly correlated to this population increase.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate.
Throughout human history, many different things affected culture and history as a whole. From laws, to inventions, to technological advancements. One thing most people do not consider to be part of this list is drinks. In the book “A History of the World in 6 Glasses” by Tom Standage, six different drinks that heavily affected world history are discussed and analyzed. Beer and wine had an extensive effect on the world, but coffee is, without question, the most influential of the three.
This book reveals to us how beer and wine were used for cultural, social, political, and even medical purposes. Finally, Standage shows us how civilizations grew by the spreading of beer and wine, and how the spreading of these drinks spread culture around the world. To Standage beer and wine is a technology that played huge role in the developing and advancing civilization. In the introduction, Standage states that throughout history various drinks have/had such high significance
Title: How Ph Levels Affected the Fermentation of Beer Hypothesis: The beer will be left with more sugar deposit as the Ph levels increase because alpha/beta -amylase will no longer function. Predictions: Alcohol Percentage Analysis for the Control and the Experimental During this experiment, the pH level was increased, therefore Alpha-Amylase was favored. Due to the nature of Alpha-Amylase cutting randomly through a large carbohydrate molecule, it leaves bigger sugars in the flask, which cannot be digested by yeast. Due to this, less reactions should occur in the experimental, therefore leading to a lower percentage of alcohol production, compared to the control.
Background Information: Yeast fermentation is directly affected by the change in temperature, because the rate of chemical reactions is affected by temperature. If the yeast has been exposed to its optimum temperature (66.667 degrees Celsius) then it will give off the highest carbon dioxide production. As the temperature gets higher, the yeast will produce more carbon dioxide, until at some point carbon dioxide production will decrease, that is when the yeast cells have become denatured due to the increase in temperature. Chemical reactions
These enzymes have a secondary and tertiary structure and this could be affected by increases and decreases in temperature beyond the optimum temperature of the enzyme to work in. Mostly enzymes are highly affected any changes in temperature beyond the enzymes optimum. There are too