There are issues with the equality of the system, as depending on the income of the accused their experiences will be completely different. The Pyrrhic defeat theory tries to explain this broken system as the consequences of those in power seeking a scapegoat the poor, and to escape responsibility of their own criminalities. The issue is perception; there have been such negative connotations of being poor that poverty and criminality have become interchangeable. Those with power have the narrative to keep this simplified view of criminality alive having their own success over the failure of others, The Pyrrhic theory is worrisome, because acknowledging it means fighting years of false narrative and realize how useless our criminal justice system really
Aggression is defined by Anderson and Bushman (2002) as ‘behaviour directed towards another individual carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm’. Whether physical or verbal, aggressive behaviour is frowned upon and being able to understand the causes and influences can help us inform how best to prevent or manage these behaviours. Reductionist approaches take a complex human behaviour such as aggression to be reducible by breaking it down into simpler components. There are different levels of explanation that aggression can be reduced to including biological causes such as hormone levels and genetic factors, behavioural explanations such as the social learning theory and social influences such as deindividuation. This essay will discuss these approaches and examine how beneficial reductionism is in understanding aggression.
Whilst conflict is inevitable Harding provides insight in describing conflict “as the beginning of consciousness”. Realistic group conflict theory (RGCT) offers a behavioural approach to conflict resolution demonstrated in Sheriff Robert Cave’s experiment. RGCT asserts that a real or imagined threat to one’s group interest often leads to conflict. Initially the situation presented with a competitive edge as the groups clamoured for the scarce resource . However, through working together, they were able to pool physical and financial resources to benefit both groups.
What is libertarian paternalism? Libertarian paternalism, championed by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, is a principle that strives to promote good decision-making in areas where people tend to behave in irrational ways—more concisely, in ways that do not align with their interests. This theory distinguishes itself from traditional ‘hard’ paternalism by its relatively unobtrusive methodology. Instead of seeking to influence people’s choices themselves, Thaler and Sunstein advocate for intentional manipulation of the ‘choice structure’. Some examples of this manipulation, also known as ‘nudging’, may include reordering options in a list, strategically positioning items on a shelf, or altering the relative visibility of products in a storefront.
Structuralism, as stated by Ajandi, examines inequities in power by revealing structures as the root of problems, rather than the individual (2018). Structuralism influences on AOP; it defines itself through structural power and its wrath of inequalities on those unlike the dominant group. AOP upholds the idea of relieving the sense of blame the individual holds and identifies their problems stem from the structures and systems put in place with the intent of discriminating against them. Anti-oppressive practice goes one step further with the concepts of structuralism by expressing the dire need for communication. According to Wilson & Beresford (2000), anti-oppressive practice promotes knowledge and expertise in each situation with every different service user, as no two situations require the exact same theories and practices.
She also failed to see that being of foreign descent does not mean she is not normal. America is a nation of diversity. Many days out of the year are dedicated to celebrate any number of different races and ethnic groups. The U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program estimates that 61.6% of the population. While that is a good part of the population; that still leaves around 40% of the population being of foreign ancestry.
The stereotype threat, according to Jessi L. Smith (2004), is a situation experience when a person/persons feel under pressure from possibly conforming to judgmental stereotypical beliefs directed at him/her/them. The pressure and vulnerability from this experience causes the individual to subconsciously perform below their typically standard, even if they are extremely skilled or gifted in that area. Thus causing the individual to confirm the stereotype even though they had attempted to negate it. (Smith, 2004, p. 177). The stereotype threat theory was first discovered by researchers Claude Steel and Steven Spencer, and in 1995 the first study was done.
The growing awareness about the natural human urge to stereotype people in recent years allows for a clear view of the natural negative side effects of these prejudices. Most importantly, stereotypes create barriers and shut down individual creativity. Stereotypes produce a close-minded attitude toward widely stereotyped groups, and those inflexible views restrict the capabilities of the members in certain groups. In their observant article, two psychologists from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia, Ben Allen and Bruce H. Friedman, discuss the concept of “stereotype threat” as it relates to classic gender stereotypes and roles. They define stereotype threat as the result of “an intimidating situation
In almost all of the past elections, about half of the voting age population did not actually vote in the elections(mashables.com). We can say this by looking at the 2012 elections in which there were “241 million people of voting age, but only 130.2 million actually cast ballots in the general election — a turnout rate of just 58.6 percent” claims Brad Plumer from Vox.com. If the voting percentage stays this way, it can make it hard to run even a decent democracy. To solve this problem, we can teach 16 year olds to hold an interest in voting which would also influence their parents or other family members who do not vote to at least hold an interest in politics and possibly start voting. This movement would result in a “trickle up” effect, and affect voting rates on the long run (fairvote.org).
Grievance as conflict drivers Theories of Grievance: The following section looks into the evidence of grievance and social inequality as the source of violent conflict. In contrast to the theory of greed proposed by Collier and Hoefller (2004), many argue that the theory of grievance allows for the better explanation of the occurrence of the violent conflict. Central to grievance is identity and group formation (Murshed and Tadjoeddin, 2009). Theories of grievance can be divided into (i) relative deprivation, (ii) polarization and (iii) horizontal inequality (Murshed and Tadjoeddin, 2009). (i) Relative deprivation: As defined by Ted Gurr (1970), relative deprivation “is he discrepancy between what people think they deserve, and what
Running head: ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT CONCEPTS/LENSES 1 ANALYSIS OF CONFLICT CONCEPTS/LENSES 11 Analysis of Conflict Concepts/Lenses Penny S. King Kennesaw State University Analysis of Conflict Concepts/Lenses The first concept that I will analyze will be Distributive Justice and an example of this can be seen in the unfair treatment amongst disadvantaged groups when it comes to education and wealth. As stated in Coleman, Deutsch & Morton (2014) there are three components of Power that affects people?s orientations and actions. One of the concepts is Personal Factors and I will mainly focus on how within Personal Factors, Power Orientations relates to my example of the Mentor/mentee relationship
Also, the authors investigate 95 existing studies, which is the small number of studies and only chose 20 qualified studies which provide relevant information. In addition, nearly 60% of given studies were non-published work. Despite all the listed-above limitations, the article is still useful to me because it has useful implications. Future research should emphasize more on work-related issue and make more comparison between different age groups and need to fully understand about the definition of generation and their effects on work-related issues. The article is useful because organizations and businesses can focus and fully understand about their employee’s needs so they can develop strategies to recruit, retain and motivates employees rather than treating employees purely based on their generational
Latinos, however account for 23 percent of the poor but were underrepresented seeing that on they only appeared in about 13 percent of the images. Those statistics are alarming and so are the discrepancies that come along with them. These type of assumptions are solely the products of American stereotypes. In 1991, a study was done that Doorn recorded to gauge American opinion. American’s average guess at the amount of poor African Americans was 50 percent, although the actual figure was around 29 percent.
Standardized testing has not improved education in America. Standardized tests have been issued in schools all across the nation for years now. Some people like them and some people don’t. They do not help the student learn more information than they would without the tests. The U.S. has dropped from 18th highest scores in schools in the world to be in the 30’s on almost all of the subjects on the test.
The major limitations are the following: - ‘All’ studies had a small number of enrolled COPD patients, ranging from 16 to 92 participants. A fact possibly due to the strict criteria for patient inclusion and the severity of the disease of the patients evaluated. It could be that if the sample size was larger many papers could have confirmed greater differences. - 3 studies (Knowles et al., Lewis et al. & Rogers et al.)