The women within the Harem were known to be the most beautiful women in the whole of the Ottoman Empire and were often given as gifts to the harem by leaders and chief of state. The Harem had many women inside but these consisted of wives, women who were either relative or servants. Also the son of the Sultan was permitted to live within the Harem until the age of 16 years old. Men weren’t allowed within the Harem, which caused everyone especially the west to be extremely curios. The definition of the word harem in Arabic means forbidden, which applies to many rules set by the Islam.
The Valide Sultana had more than a hundred women of different ages who performed in a complex hierarchy. The more practical running of the harem was under the shared responsibility of two women: the “head housekeeper” with the title of Kahya and the “head treasurer” with the title of Haznedar Usta. Financial matters were a great responsibility, thus the haznedar usta was acting as a sort of banker and consultant in the harem. Then came senior maids called kalfas, lower rank servants called halayiks assisted them, their ages ranged from twelve and older. Usually each kalfa was assisted by six halayiks.
It traverses the long history of the Ottoman Empire, from the fourteenth to the mid twentieth hundreds of years, and incorporates adverse land and social range including ladies of Anatolia, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, North Africa, and West Asia legitimate, and additionally Christian, Jewish, and Muslim ladies. The investigation of Ottoman ladies is generally new. Before the late 1970s, little had been composed. Amid the last a quarter century, be that as it may, maybe no subject in Middle Eastern investigations has pulled in more insightful attention. Much of this work has tested the customary perspective of Ottoman and Muslim ladies based on normative religious and political writing as minimized and feeble.
His rule has been called the Golden age. Like Akbar he was eager to to expand his empire. His political career included the administration of the Mughal Empire, Sikh rebels, Rajput rebels, good relations with Deccan, Safavid and Ottoman empires. His contributions to architecture are of great importance in which he built famous buildings like Red Fort, Wazir Khan Mosque, Jamiya Masjid and the last but not the least is Taj Mahal which he built in the memories of her pretty but dead wife is among the Seven Wonders of the World. In 1629 Shah Jahan made his own currency made from silver, gold and copper.
Moreover, a uniform design is observed in terms of character and structure in the Mughal buildings. The Mughal architecture initiates its origins within India and they took inspirations from the West through Islamic planning ideologies developed by erudite exchange between Europe and Persia. The period of Mughal rulers was from
Umayyad Empire (661–750), in the Umayyad era many new elements were included to the Islamic architecture: Minarates, Arabisque, Mosaic, Luxury palaces. Great Mosque at Cordoba. Abd ar-Rahman III ordered a new minaret (9th century). Al-Hakam II enlarged the plan of the building and enriched the mihrab (961). Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir completion of the outer aisles and orange tree courtyard were (987).
Rajputs Policy Akbar was impressed by the patriotism and chivalry displayed by the Rajputs during his conquest of Rajputana. He realised that the support of Rajputs is necessary to build and sustain the Mughal Empire. Akbar often treated the Rajputs with honour and equality and consequently, won their respect and loyalty. He instigated a number of matrimonial alliances with Rajput rulers. In 1562, Akbar married to the daughter of Raja Bihari Mal, the ruler of Amber.
Mughal Art Presentation: Summary of Peter Alford Andrews’ essay: The Generous Heart or the Mass of Clouds: The Court Tents of Shah Jahan. We’ve always been curious about the way of life of celebrities and of course, royalty. Think about all the extensive documentaries made on the way the rich and the famous lived- from the mirrored halls of Versailles to the Buckimgham Palace to the Forts and Mehels of Indian maharajas. Haven’t we all wanted to spend a night in the ‘heritage hotels’ like the Lake Palace of Udaipur- for example- to know how it feels to be royal. These ways of living- survive as buildings.
Demeaning of the Muslim Culture. The British were the successors of the Mughals who were muslims. They therefore went out of their way to demean whatever represented or symbolized muslim rule. This deliberate and sysatic process of demeaning muslim traditions was a necessary adjunct of the British culture in India and needs to be understood:- a. Muslim Rank Names. Take Muslim rank names, for example high ranks like Subedar, Risaldar, Havildar were given to Subordinate JCOs & NCOs.
The kingdom’s religion was Buddhism. However, it was subordinate to the Sultan of Bengal, to whom the King of Mrauk-U owed his kingdom’s independence in 1830. Thus, the Arakanese kings employed Islamic titles and Muslim inscriptions were stamped on the kingdom’s coins. Even when Mrauk-U conquered east Bengal and freed itself from its status as a vassal to the Sultan of Bengal, Islamic traditions were maintained. (*4) This cultural influence was reinforced by the arrival and immigration of Muslims to Mrauk-U in the following centuries.