Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders was 62/10 000 (Elsabbagh M, 2012). In India around 2,000,000 children having autism, based on estimate rate of 1 in 250(The Autism Society of America, 2007). The prevalence of having ASD increases significantly for siblings. If one identical twin is diagnosed with autism, the other twin has a 60-96% chance of also being on the spectrum. In non-identical twins, the chances decrease to 0-24%.
ICDS was introduced in October 1975 as a result of numerous researches and evaluation studies of over two decades. Through establishing a network of projects centres across the country this programme is given a holistic approach to the physical, psychological and social development of the child. Setting up ICDS for children and nursing mothers has been a major step by the Government of India to face the crucial challenge of providing pre-school non-formal education on one hand and breaking the atrocious link between malnutrition, morbidity, reduced learning capacity and sometimes mortality of the child on the other. Children in the age group of 0-6 years, pregnant women and lactating mothers are the beneficiaries of this
In the urban population, IMRs in the five lowest infant mortality states have decreased faster than in five highest infant mortality states, resultantly inter-state inequality in urban infant mortality has increased. However in states with highest infant mortality, between 1981-83, has resulted in a decrease in the inter-state inequality. The median decrease in total infant mortality rate in states having lowest and the highest infant mortality in 1981-83 was 39.92 per cent and 54.16 per cent respectively. Similarly, the median decrease in rural infant mortality rate in states with lowest rural infant mortality and in states with highest infant mortality in 1981-83 was 39.96 and 54.73 per cent respectively; the corresponding figures for the urban infant mortality rate being 46.73 and 41.56 per cent respectively (Chaurasia, 2005). Kerala in India has the lowest infant mortality rates and recorded IMR of 7 against the national average of 34 in 2013(Indian Academy of
2.8 International standard of Children Growth 2.8.1 WHO Child Growth References and Standards From the early 70s era to till now World Health Organization (WHO) has been publishing lots of editions of reports, journals and country profiles regarding of children's growth and nutritional status and WHO references and recommended for worldwide apply to assess in children's growth and nutritional status (Wang, et al., 2006). In the year 2005, the World Health Organization developed new Growth Reference Standards (GRS) for children. These growth standards have been used worldwide in 8440 children's representative from six different countries and evaluated and promoted healthy growth, breast feeding, better diets, prevention and control of
This was a prospective cohort study, carried out on mother baby pairs selected randomly from the delivery done at our hospital during the period of June 2009 to Dec 2012. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by Institutional ethics committee on the agreement that patient anonymity must be maintained, the finding would be treated with utmost confidentiality and for the purpose of this research only. A total One hundred and twenty one (n=121) mother infants pairs were followed up at the time of birth and prospectively for the first 30 days of new born life with daily clinical examination. Infants with Rh incompatibility, congenital malformation, major systemic disease evident at birth and any unrelated complications arising during hospital stay were excluded from the
Africa has the worlds biggest share of maternal deaths with over 50% in the year 2010. Equatorial Guinea has achieved Goal 5, with an 81 per cent reduction in the maternal mortality ratio since 1990, and Eritrea and Egypt are both on track (WHO) In Southern Africa however, the rate continues to rise most likely due to HIV/AIDS v=The sixth goal is to combat Malaria, HIV/Aids and Other diseases. The spread if hiv is to be halted as well as malaria and other major diseases. More than 1.4 million people have received treatment per year, this has prevented approximately 2.5 million deaths. 200,000 deaths from malaria have been prevented each year where the disease is endemic.
In the year of 1989, the House of Commons passed a solution to end child poverty by 2000. Only 18.4% were living in poverty that year, however, more than one in seven of children were still in poverty whether it was absolute or relative (Naiman 227). The highest rates were commonly targeted at the Aboriginals, women, immigrants, and people with disabilities. These rates were the higher than the national average of poverty (Naiman 227). Poverty still exists because of the low wages and unemployment.
Nearly 20% of the children of the world between the ages 0-4 years make India their home and as a result India is home to the largest number of children in the world. (According to the World Population Prospects, Revision population database, the child population in the age group 0-4 for India in 2010 is estimated to be 1 26 million against 88,000,000 in China. The population of children in the age group 0-14 for the same year for India is estimated as 3 74 million as compared to 2 16 million in China.) Though India has witnessed phenomenal growth in terms of literacy and economy, the perception of of holistic developer of children is abysmally less understood and isolated and to be more specific underinvested. In spite of rapid strides in
Moderate malnutrition contributes more to the overall disease burden than severe, as it affects numerous more children, even if the risk of death is lower.(3). Collins et al, analysis shows over 1.5 million child deaths associated with severe acute malnutrition and 3.5 with moderate acute malnutrition every year. (4) Based on joint assessment by UNICEF, WHO and the World Bank the prevalence of acute malnutrition (WHZ <-2) had a prevalence of 10% or more – a threshold that represents a “public health emergency requiring immediate intervention” . This study also showed that, since 1990, prevalence rates of acute malnutrition have declined three times slowly than prevalence rates of for stunting.
In 1985, over ninety percent of Indians lived on less than one dollar a day, but after the country began reforms in the early 1990s, economic growth rose to around 7 percent, slowed again in the late 1990s, but since 2002 has continued at a rapid pace, to become one of the world’s largest economies (Farrell and Beinhocker, 2007). This growth has brought millions out of poverty and is changing the social and economic structures that are experienced by Indians, and due to their dynamic nature, are particularly influential upon youth. The United Nations considers youth to be people between the ages of 15 and 24 years old, because by the age of 24 the transition from childhood to adulthood (both physically and emotionally) is complete (United Nations, 1981). Those theorising about the ‘youth bulge’ define youth as being between the ages of 15 and 30 (Mabala, 2011). It may be argued that the higher the age that defines youth is, the more marginalised the younger youth become, and pushing back the age of when adulthood begins leaves young people in a state of uncertainty, as they have not been given the social space to become or be recognised as adults (Mabala, 2011).