A paradigm is a way of looking at the world. It is composed of certain philosophical assumptions that guide and direct thinking and action. Likewise, a paradigm can be defined as the “basic belief system or worldview that guides the investigation” (Guba & Lincoln, 1994, p. 105). Before joining this M.Phil programme, my understanding of research methodology was limited to only qualitative, quantitative and mix method and two approaches case study and ethnography. Now, after going through the qualitative research methods course, discussion in the classroom, going through different literature and based on the new learning, I realized that the theoretical framework for any research is beliefs of the researchers.
The beginning of knowledge emanates from metaphysics, theological and positivism. And these put much on a critical stance in the discourse of method. Little (2011), explains that method is a prescriptive body of doctrines to guide inquiry. The ideal of understanding social world underlies in whether to embrace and use principles and guiding procedures of the natural world where positivism dominates in the epistemological deliberation. Atkinson & Hammersley (2007), explain that this method has a considerable influence onto social scientist, in promoting the status of survey research and the quantitative analysis According to Bryman (2002), Bryman and Bell (2003) positivism is an epistemological position which calls for the application of the
The social concept also social construction of reality (Social constructionism) is considered a theory of knowledge in sociology which evaluates the advancement of mutually created understandings of the world which is a basis for the formation of collective assumptions on reality. The theory affirms the opinion that people rationalize their experience through creating models of their social world and later sharing such models via language. Dating from the work of Berger and Luckmann (1966) different authors have put forth their contribution and ideas on social constructionizm. Berger and Luckmann dispute that all knowledge is gained and maintained from social interactions. Apparently according to the two authors people interact bearing in mind
The sociological perspective is the study of human life and social interactions, it also studies how those interactions mould groups and society as a whole. A sociological perspective goes past the manifest and challenge what is accepted as common-sense. Since sociologists analyze social phenomena at different levels, they come up with different perspectives to understand social life, social change and the social causes and consequences of human behaviour, each uniquely viewing society in their own way. In this paper we are going to look at the main sociological perspectives. Functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability .
He argued that one of the main tasks of sociology was to transform personal problems into public and political issues or vice versa. To have sociological imagination is to have “vivid awareness of the relationship between experience and the wider society" (Mills 2). Overall, sociological imagination is the concept which is based on social locators. As mentioned previously, there is a difficulty to grasp control on class, gender, and race because a person is born into these three categories. In a practical sense, my personal choices are shaped by my social locators.
He was focous on individual and culture he also focus on individual and their action. Methodology Weber was concerned with the question of objectivity and subjectivity.  Weber distinguished social action from social behavior, noting that social action must be understood through how individuals subjectively relate to one another. Study of social action through interpretive (Verstehen) must be based upon understanding the subjective meaning and purpose that individuals attach to their actions. Social actions may have easily identifiable and objective means, but much more subjective ends and the understanding of those ends by a scientist is subject to yet another layer of subjective understanding (that of the scientist).He was basically influenced on social research and social theory .
The symbolic interaction perspective, also called symbolic interactionism, is a major framework of sociological theory. This perspective relies on the symbolic meaning that people develop and rely upon in the process of social interaction. Although symbolic interactionism traces its origins to Max Weber 's assertion that individuals act according to their interpretation of the meaning of their world, the American philosopher George Herbert Mead introduced this perspective to American sociology in the 1920s. (Crossman, 2012) Typical connection hypothesis dissects society by tending to the subjective implications that individuals force on items, occasions, and practices. Subjective implications are given power on the grounds that it is trusted that individuals carry on in light of what they accept and not simply on what is impartially genuine.
This is in contrast to Talcott Parson’s ‘grand theory’ that explains every aspect of society from a structural level. Grand theorists seek to develop all-encompassing theories that can apply to society at large. However, because grand theories are so broad, it does not allow for the development of working hypotheses which can then be empirically confirmed by conducting research. Merton provides an alternative method to sociological theory by introducing theories of the middle range. Theories of the middle range are an approach to sociological theorizing aimed at integrating theory and empirical research.
Comparative research, according to Mills, “refers to the evaluation of the similarities, differences, and associations between entities. Entities may be based on many lines such as statements from an interview or individual, symbols, case studies, social groups, geographical or political configurations, and cross-national comparisons” [2013, 3]. This definition suggests that the aim of this kind of research is to give an outline of the entities’ similarities while also identifying the “unique aspects” of the compared units of analyses. Social science researchers use comparative analysis as a method to their studies [Lor 2011, 2]. While Lor  recognizes comparative method as a methodology, he also stated that other social scientists refer to it as a subfield.