If states seek to be hegemons, the structure will punish them as other states will form balancing coalitions that will put the survival of the potential hegemon in question. Waltz’ theory suggests that to achieve security states must pursue only ‘the appropriate amount of power’ . As an offensive realist, Mearsheimer departs from Waltz’s conclusions and criticizes the ‘status quo bias’ inherent in his theory. He says that ‘status quo states’ are rarely found in international politics because the system creates powerful incentives for states to maximise power at the expense of their rivals. Therefore, all great powers (the main actors in international politics) are revisionist powers who aspire to be the only hegemon in the system as it provides the maximum security and thereby maximizes the chances of survival.
However Bismarck’s system was described as short - term and while it brought peace in Europe it initiated all the alliances between major European powers, this alliance system is believed to be one of the major causes for the outbreak of WWI. Kaiser Wilhelm destroyed the fragile situation created by Bismarck which was based on treaties that aimed to isolate France; germany needed a very competent successor to Bismarck, instead under Kaiser Wilhelm the German foreign policy was influenced by the same militarism and nationalism that brought Germany to unite in
Both parties had America’s best interest at heart, however Hamilton and the Federalists’ ideas concerning the economy, interpretation of the Constitution, and the future of American society made them more fit for governing the United States. Hamilton’s understanding of a successful economy allowed him to make decisions that would benefit the country. As discussed in source one, Alexander Hamilton created a uniform currency and an economic plan that would assume state debts and make them federal debts. From there on, he created a national bank; in source three Hamilton states, “...[The Democratic Republicans] were determined to oppose the banking system, which would ruin the credit and honor of the Nation”, as he clearly has the nation’s best interest at heart. The Democratic Republican feared corruption, but they overlooked that their rights are protected in the Constitution and that their
The intent of the alliances may have been to prevent war but in practice they were perhaps what influenced it the most. If in practice they had stayed true to wanting to avert war then it may have worked, but each country (primarily Austria-Hungary) had used large amounts of rhetoric to influence their own agenda. Nationalism ended up becoming too strong as each country began to place the importance of superiority over peace of the nations. Political leaders used persuasive language to manipulate the regions into a competition of who is the strongest nation. As with many conflicts in history, pride often overcomes the idea of peace.
He created a complex system with Prussia as its centre of government and aimed to build a new order that benefitted Prussia, and he wanted to maintain the new order through simultaneously strengthening the new German state. However, Bismarck had doubts that Germany wasn’t entirely united because there were many interest groups who worked against the empire, especially the catholic groups who existed primarily in south Germany and East Prussia. He started a campaign fighting against Catholicism called the Kulturkampf and it was designed to suppress catholic influence in the country. The state went through a series of regulations, inter alias letting the state take control of Catholic schools, appointment of clergy, limit the church’s legal power and the state obtains the power to expel the clergy if they refuse to adjust to the new order. However, this has the opposite effect of what it was originally intended, the Catholic support grew and by “1875 Pope Pius IX declares Germany’s anti-catholic laws illegal” and forces Bismarck to abandon the campaign.
This central commitment to power, and not a set of collective principles, is what leaves them susceptible to the fear in liberalism that Robin describes, a fear of sanction and loss of ability (2004, 18). While the Resistance is also afraid, their fear is transformed into a stable political emotion, hope, because their political claims are rooted in a deep love of shared principles to which they can aspire. This is why Kylo Ren murders the leader of the Empire in a sort of coup as an attempt to gain control, while the Resistance is a unified political force despite their relative weakness, diversity of personal motivation, and practical disputes. Both forces use the fear of loss as a motivator, though one uses the fear of losing power and the other, the fear
He is respected for his tactics in selecting and supervising his army generals, commanding and preserving the army, appropriate coordination with state governors and Congress. Further, he rendered great appropriate attention to logistics, supplies and training. However, Washington was usually outdone by the British in war, due to their large number of army officers. After winning in 1783, he resigned as the commander-in-chief instead of taking up more power. This was aimed at showing his disapproval of dictatorships and portray his support for American republicanism.
And Alan Greenspan first appeared on the stage of history. “ Real liberty is neither found in despotism or the extremes of democracy, but in moderate governments.” Hamilton's political ideas with a strong colonial stigma, he centralized government, military and financial power is obsessed country, scoffed the French Revolutionary Party. Hamilton and Republican, Democratic, even the Federal Party at the same period were incompatible. He realized the first constitution was over loose, hidden risks, and actively promoted a constitutional amendment. His writing is very sharp, leading wrote Federalist Papers, cleverly using the "Federalist" substitution "Nationalist" concept, the federal party and constitutional planed to win a lot of support.
He condemned monarchy and aristocracy in favor of a democratic system in which people directly elected their representatives. Common Sense was an inspiring argument in favor of democracy. It rejected hereditary succession. The arguments were straightforward; he called George III “Pharaoh of England” (qtd. in Ayers et al.
There are several vital aspects to Machiavelli's regard he's one among the foremost important political theorists of his and our time, particularly looking back to the growth of realistic political approach. the primary factor one has to recognize so as to understand Machiavelli's thought is that he lived in turbulent political times at the start of the Renaissance time. He believes that the well-being of the state is that the responsibility of the ruler and will be achieved by any means possible, even by deceptions, treacheries, and intrigues. The ruler's personal morality is of way less importance than the goodness of the state because the ruler judged by the results of his reign instead of the means that he used. He magnificently declared that sensible rulers generally ought to learn "not to be good," they need to be willing to put aside