Liberalism affected much of Europe during the Eighteenth Century. It started with the French wanting to get property rights and the lower class people wanting the right to vote, and it eventually conformed with nationalism and wanting to combine countries based on the language people spoke. Britain even had their share of Liberalism, and it especially heated up during the time of Gladstone and Disraeli. Liberalism did not always win, but it changed the political and economic atmosphere all throughout Europe. The French Revolution led to lower class citizens being able to own property. For peasants and farmers this was a big sigh of relief because they had been controlled by aristocrats who had owned the land, and they could not make a very good living because of them. …show more content…
Instead of there being peasants or serfs, there was now the wage-labor force. This is what helped create the rise of the free-market and capitalism and the Bourgeois and the Proletariats. Now skilled labor became a commodity in the market place, and it suffered when the factory system arose. The Western Heritage states, “In the process of becoming wage laborers, artisans gradually lost both significant ownership of the means of production, such as tools and equipment, and of control over the conduct of their own trades.” Instead of the monarchy controlling businesses and the aristocrats, now the middle classes or those that could run factories controlled businesses and turned them into a big profit. Mass production became a big theme during this time, which allowed prices to lower on several goods. Trade with other countries, also helped these businesses. For Britain where the Industrial Revolution seemed to hit first, trade really benefited them. Since they had the largest ship fleet, they could trade with the Americas very easily and in high quantity. Those countries relied on Britain for trade as well as others in
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The French Revolution was a radical period in France between 1789-1814. The French Revolution has had a big impact on the infrastructure of France, those impactful ideas are even seen today. These ideas of enlightenment brought to society by French revolutionaries influenced the French Revolution down the line. Their were things that caused the Revolution like the financial state of the common people in France, the political system, and the way the Estates General was set up. All of those led to effects like the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen”, the execution of King Louis XVI, and the Rise of Napoleon as well as his Revolution.
Business grew rapidly, much of it by the steel industry. With larger quantities of iron ore being transported to factories, more steel could be made. More steel allowed for the laying of more railroad tracks. With more tracks in place, factories could ship their products to more customers. One built on the next, and the Industrial Revolution grew and expanded.
During this time, population greatly increased around the world due to the improvements in technology, medicine, as well as the spread of crops after the Columbian Exchange. Population increase and urbanization led to the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Britain was the perfect place for the birth of the Industrial Revolution for it had raw materials (iron, coal), a stable government, and was close to water. In a matter of years, the Industrial Revolution had spread around the world to places such as Germany, Russia, Japan, and the United States, creating trade focused on manufacturing goods such as cotton textiles, and lead to the inventions of the railroad, steam engine, telegraph, and steamboat. Trade among the Atlantic Basin was no longer focused on cash crops and agricultural products, but shifted to new technologies and manufactured products created because of the Industrial Revolution, with Latin America as an exception, for it did not become
By the early 1800’s America began transitioning from an agriculture based economy to industrial production. After Thomas Jefferson's’ Embargo Act of 1807 that cut off all exports from the United States, domestic production boomed. Americans were forced to depend solely on themselves, developing economic independence. Inventions such as Eli Whitney’s cotton gin and railroads lead to industrial production and textiles. By 1815 there were hundreds of textile mills, spurring the growth of the Lowell factory system.
The French Revolution was one of the most significant wars that changed France’s history. The Revolution started in 1789 and ended in 1799 and was mainly initiated by the conditions affecting the Third Estate. Louis XVI was predominately the king during this time period but little did he know that an uprising among the peasants was happening. The French Revolution was caused by the Enlightenment ideas because of the American Revolution, the knowledge of rights, and the questioning of France’s government. The American Revolution was basically the “fire” that ignited the change the Third Estate wanted to see in their country.
Great Britain was the first state to have an Industrial Revolution after 1750. One of the main reasons was due to the farming growth in Great Britain. There were many changes that were happening to the farming industry and livestock that led to the rise of food production (Spielvogel 597). The British were able to feed their citizens for a cheaper cost than most of Europe. The British did not have to spend most of their income in purchasing groceries.
Enlightenment was a concept that inspired a new way of thinking of the people. In the newly formed United States of America, enlightenment shaped the way the new government was run. Scientific reasoning was applied to politics, religion, and science. Enlightenment saved music, art, and literature programs in colleges. Enlightenment in Europe led to drastically altered views on philosophy, politics, and communications.
The French Revolution was a drastic time for the people of France. In 1789, the majority of people were living in poverty and dealing with terrible conditions. People were split into three estates: the first, second, and third, the first being the wealthiest. Political, economic, and social situations were what contributed to people’s desire for change. The three main, or biggest causes of the French Revolution, were taxes, inequality, and lack of reform.
When trying to define a word such as Liberalism it seems difficult to find a solid definition. There are different forms of liberalism and different meanings depending on the time period it is being applied to (idea taken from Phil Badger author from philosophynow). To solve this ambiguity, I’ve decided to define liberalism based on the time period in which I will be conducting my research. Liberalism in the 1700s was the belief of freedom and equals rights generally associated with the enlightenment thinkers, John Locke and Montesquieu (as defined by wikipedia.org). Liberalism didn’t start in the 1700s.
The French revolution is considered to be the most significant and effective event in the history. It changed the lives of many peoples and changed the future. Since people of France were under the control of the King they wanted to get rid of French government to eliminate power of the king. There were numerous other factors that also lead the French to the revolution. There were also many social unfairness among the taxes between the estates.
The citizens in France and America were affected by the promotion of classical liberalism because of how it encouraged individuals to embrace change and equality in society. During the American Revolution was inspired change to become independent from the British crown. Allowing citizens to have supreme power and the ability to elect representatives, also the power to not have a ruling monarch. This encourage humans being capable of making decisions and equality in society as well from the creation of Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights (1791).
These include the transition of an absolute monarchy to a constitution one (and ultimately, in the mid-19th century, to no monarch at all), a migration of belief from the asserted divine right of kings to one of popular sovereignty, the jettisoning of corporate privileges of the nobility and church, and with it, a civil equality in taxes and rule of law and in religious belief, and the establishment of merit and talent in lieu of birth hierarchy as the basis of societal structure. The French Revolution had major effects on different groups of people including the monarch, the nobility, the clergy, peasants, urban workers, slaves, and women. The tumult of the last decade of 18th century France had profound effects on these different groups, some gaining political equality, others political freedom, and others pronounced suffering, loss, and even public execution. There were winners and losers as a result of the French Revolution.
A historian once wrote that the 19th century was “a time of bitter conflict, as the world of the past fought to remain alive.” During the 19th century, there was an emergence of the political ideologies: liberalism, conservatism, and socialism. Liberalism sought to limit the government, preserve individual freedom and believed in the hierarchy of merit. Conservatism attempted to preserve the existing order and believed in tradition over reason. Socialists believed in strengthening parliaments and the working class to bolster laborers.
During the Industrial Revolution, we see many new inventions, ideas, and cultures be created and established. All these changes contributed to the growth of economic power in the United States. This growth allowed the formation of big business to rise. All these factors have played a huge role in how we see our daily lives today. They helped us create laws and social norms that we follow today.