Another theory of stress which is quite similar and related to the GAS theory is fight- or - flight response by Walter Cannon, one of the early pioneers in stress research. Cannon’s theory of response was documented based on the research about animal releasing hormones when subjected to shock or experienced threat (Taylor, 1999). Same like animals, human also has this response when facing stress. A person can either flee or remain to fight when facing danger or stressful situation. Thus, fight- or - flight response is more to the basic survival
Stress can affect people of all ages, genders and circumstances and can lead to both physical and psychological health issues. Stress is any uncomfortable emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical effects, physiological effects, cognitive effects, and behavioural effects that might influence health (Baum 1990; Steptoe and Ayers, 2005; Taylor, 2006). These predictable effects on the body depend on how an individual appraise an event, thus, the way an individual perceive an event contribute significantly towards the determination of whether an event is stressful or not and also a determinant of the level of susceptibility to stress-related diseases (Lupien et al., 2009; McEwen, 2009). Generally, events appraised as stressful include; salient events, event overload, ambiguous event and uncontrollable events (Foreshaw, 2006; Steptoe and Ayers, 2005). Stressful events are termed as stressors: a stressor is any real or perceived physical, social, or psychological event or stimulus that causes our bodies to react or respond (Glanz & Schwartz, 2008).
Richard Dienstbier (1989) questions the emphasis the GAS places on the role of chronic stress and proposes another model of stress, Physiological Toughening, which focuses on the duration of stressful events. He points out that stressors vary in their durations. Mandler 's (1982) Interruption Theory of stress provides a transition between the internal component of stress and the interaction component. Mandler defines stress as an emergency signaling interruption. The basic premise is that autonomic activity results whenever some organized action or thought process is interrupted.
ACTH induces the formation of peroxidase in the adrenal of hypophysectomized rats, which is associated with the depletion of asorbate. An inverse relationship is observed. Sayers et al., (1948) showed that depletion of ascorbate with ACTH in hypophysectomized rats exhibits a time pattern relationship; the depletion sets in within 5 minutes of ACTH injection,reaches a point of maximum depletion at about 1-2 hrs., whereafter the ascorbic acid concentration starts building up again, showing a rebound at about 20-24 hrs. High level of AA in adrenal has been suggested to act as a restraint factor on steroidogenesis particularly in the early reactions of the sequence involving cholesterol conversion to progesterone (Hayano,et al.,1956). It has been proposed that inhibition of steroidogenesis by AA is chiefly affected through hydroxylase system, which is relieved when stimulated by ACTH (Kitabachi,
Cold pressor test induces stress so that there was a change in cardiovascular activity in order to maintain body homeostasis (18). During stress condition a surge of catecholamine hormones like epinephrine, norepinephrine and the main stress hormone of the body cortisol is released. These hormones binding with the adrenergic receptors, thus they support the sympathetic response system to increase heart rate and vasoconstriction to increase blood pressure
Everyone encounters mental stress from day to day, from major life events to daily hassles. In this paper, both negative and positive effects of stress exercised on human physiological health is investigated. Effects of stress on the immune system, role as a cancer accelerator, pain inducer and cardiac disease initiator is researched upon. Although there are a number of researches supporting both positive and negative effects on human bodies, it is clear that stress can pose severe and even lethal effects on the human body when humans are exposed to stress for a long time. Stress can have an adverse impact on one’s immune system.
Stress is visualized in a negative light in the news, in health classes, in entertainment media, and in the workplace. According to Crum and Salovey (2013) over the years, stress has been cited as a “growing plague”. Plague means, it is an epidemic disease that causes high mortality; infectious. Although there are numerous definitions of stress, for me, it is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances. We suggest that stress is a meaningful variable that influences outcomes such as health and other performances under stress.
(p. 105) Stress is a response to a perceived danger. It comes from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), part of the autonomic nervous system. One of the most well know theories of stress response is the flight or fight theory. When a stressor presents itself the body prepares for action by increasing blood pressure, blood flow to large muscles, blood glucose concentration, muscular strength mental activity and
Humans experience stress almost every day in life. They are caused by different things but one of the most popular sources of stress is what we called environment stressors. This kind of stressors is found in the environment where the human being is living. Environmental stressors can be classified into 4 general types: cataclysmic events, stressful life events, daily hassles and ambient stressors (Baum, Singer & Baum, 1982; Campbell, 1983; Lazarus & Cohen, 1977). Cataclysmic events are the sudden calamities (earthquakes, floods, storm, volcanic eruptions and others) that stipulate major adjustment response from those individuals whom where directly affected by the incident.
These stresses cause a pressure overload which induce changes in myocardial structure and function. This initially acts a compensatory mechanism but when pressure overload persists it can lead to the development of cardiac hypertrophy (Lyon et al., Mechanotransduction in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Failure) . Cardiac hypertrophy is strongly associated with in an increased risk of several severe cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease and heart failure (Gosse,