There are many careers that are very stressful and one which regularly tops the list of most stressful careers is being an enlisted service member. Stress management programs are crucial in helping Soldiers cope with stress because of the long term measure they are experiencing. Frequent and long deployments, immediate danger and fast paced, high workload environments all contribute to the high rate of suicides among service members. Stress is both directly and indirectly linked to a host of mental and physical problems.
Stress can cause a myriad of behavioral and psychological disorders. Although occupational and traumatic stress affects behavior and the psyche, there are also biological, physical, and physiological effects and manifestations due to stress. Biological, Physical, and Physiological Effects and Manifestations. Stress not only affects behavior and the mind, but also takes its toll on the body directly. As previously mentioned, law enforcement is a stressful vocation and it is associated with increased health concerns due to its link with occupational, traumatic, and work related stress and stressors (Habersaat, Geiger, Abdellaoui, & Wolf, 2015)
GAD is psychological impairment that worries patients excessively and interfere with their social functioning. People with anxiety worry about future events, that leads them into feeling physical symptoms as shakiness (Porter, 2015). There are six different type of anxiety, which are the following: generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and panic disorder (Porter, 2015). Some characteristics of this disorder are: excessive worrying, trouble sleeping, hot flashes, nausea, and tension. This leads to some of the challenges they face like, for physical domains people with anxiety can suffer from muscle weakness.
DNA and hormones have a manipulative effect on our daily life’s. For example Cortisol is the hormone that controls our energy levels in times of stress (DuVall). We all have experienced the feeling of being “stressed”. Some people tend to get stressed over little problems and some tend to get stressed over bigger problems. Dr. Nadolsky states that high levels of cortisol have been shown to cause cardiovascular issues.
With sudden onset stress, the muscles tense up all at once, and then release their tension when the stress passes. Chronic stress causes the muscles in the body to be in a more or less constant state of guardedness. When muscles are taut and tense for long periods of time, this may trigger other reactions of the body and even promote stress-related disorders. For example, both tension-type headache and migraine headache are associated with chronic muscle tension in the area of the shoulders, neck and head. Stress can make you breathe harder.
(American Psychiatric Association) • Depression – “Depression is a serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Depression has a variety of symptoms, but the most common are a deep feeling of sadness or a marked loss of interest or pleasure in activities” • Hyperactivity: “Hyperactivity is a state of excess activity that may be manifested by symptoms such as fidgeting, jumpiness, nervousness, or excessive movement. It is often accompanied by difficulty concentrating or focusing on a task, excessive talking, or difficulty remaining quiet in school.” (Melissa Conrad Stoppler, MD, 2014) Research Design: Exploratory Design – “Exploratory research tends to tackle new problems on which little or no previous research has been done” (Brown, 2006,
Eyewitnesses that witness a crime, especially violent crime, commonly experience stress. Stress is a negative emotional state that causes both physiological changes and cognitive changes. High stress causes increased arousal, increase in heart rate, blood pressure and muscle tone. A person feels stress when encountering a threat and that causes high anxiety. High levels of stress can leads to holes in memory of eyewitnesses when asked to recall details such the persons involved.
For various disorders, the term anxiety is used as a “wrap up” word. These disorders all relate to excessive nervousness, stress, fear, worry, and such mental illnesses and can lead to medical factors like anemia, asthma, and heart problems. Anxiety can be the result of many causes, some of them being: • Stress regarding a serious disease • Medicinal side effects • Mental insecurity and trauma Anxiety can cause a problem in the daily activities of the person experiencing it. They
Whether it develops from their school life or from their extra curricular activities they participate in, anxiety will still have similar effects on each child. Physical problems that children experience, due to anxiety, can have a lasting negative impact on the child’s later life. In the University of Michigan’s department of the University of Health Service, describes the effects of a panic attack, that originated from anxiety, by stating, “People with panic disorder have panic attacks with feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. During the attacks, individuals may feel like they can 't breathe, have lost control, are having a heart attack or even that they are dying. Physical symptoms may include chest pain, dizziness, nausea, sweating, tingling or numbness, and a racing heartbeat” (www.uhs.umich.edu).
Stress is the most common problem of individuals it is a universal assumption and that everyone already experienced stress. In time, people get to have some irregularities in their functioning as they experience stress and it prolongs in their lives which may or will make worse the body and mind of individuals (Krantz, Thorn, & Glaser, 2013). Stress has two kinds; the eustress and distress. By definition, eustress is a type of stress that can help the individual to be motivated and can also enhance daily functioning while distress is a type of stress consisting of problems and conflicts that the individual is unable to cope and adapt and that can lead to illnesses according to Lazarus (1966), as cited by Kranner, Minibayeva, Beckett, & Seal
Suicides and the Criminal Justice System The reason why there is an elevated rate of suicides in the criminal justice system, particularly in jails and prisons is probably because the incarcerated population is dealing with some major stressors. Among the stressors documented or recognized, it has been observed that these people usually deal with: a “loss of liberty”, a high degree of “enforced structure and discipline”, “overcrowding” and a “dirty, depressed and aggressive environment”; in addition to “poor diet”, “feeling of guilt and shame”. What make the situation worse, are a power differential between incarcerated individuals and institutional staffs, and an uncertain future.
They may abuse substances, gamble often, drive recklessly, or spend money carelessly. BPD patients are extreme risk takers and are constantly seeking new things to do (Bayer 47). Some behavior seen in Borderline patients is exceedingly self-damaging. This type of behavior ranges from sabotaging relationships, and skipping graduation to wrecking accomplishments at work. Even worse, BPD patients may damage themselves physically by burning or cutting their skin; suicide attempts are also prevalent.
Panic disorders is a common type of psychological disorders that affect a noticeable percentage of the U.S. population age 18 and older and having more cases in women than men Like most anxiety disorders, they have another disorder coexisting with the first. A common combination is a panic disorder with agoraphobia, a certain fear of places or situations where escape is impossible or embarrassing. These disorders can infuse great struggles to follow through with everyday life, as well as cause great disturbances to the mind and body of the individual. Panic disorders introduce great suffering without the accompaniment of agoraphobia; the combination of the two can prove challenging for a human being to live normally. Panic disorders cause sudden
This means the chances of getting heart disease can increase rapidly. People of lower socioeconomic status have higher risk factors for heart disease because of stress, poor lifestyle choices, and lack of health care information. Everyone experiences stress, whether it is from school, work, or day to day life, stress can consume anyone. The problem with stress is that if it is not managed appropriately it can contribute to many factors which will lead to heart disease.
What are the long-term consequences of unmanaged stress? If left unmanaged stress can cause many large long term problems of a person’s mind and body. “High stress levels can contribute to cardiovascular disease, including heart attacks and strokes, and may be associated with some forms of cancer”