Marxism Marxism is a theory created by Karl Marx’s followers. Although Marx expressed that he did not consider him as a Marxist, and that his followers took advantage of his radical newspaper columns for their own purposes and twisted his words, however Marxism became very popular during the 19th century. Marxism consists mostly of Marx’s theory called class theory or class structure. Most of Marx’s theory includes works from other well-known social scientists like E.P Thompson and Mario Tronti, who in some way were the inspiration for Marx to write his books about sociological thinking. Marxism has a style that is unique.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a book written in 1905 by the German sociologist, economist and politician Max Weber. It is considered as one of the most controversial works of modern social science, and it is a book that provokes critical debates. The book was first published as a two-part article in 1904-05, in the Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik of which Weber was one of the editors. The book is translated into English by Talcott Parsons, with an introduction by Anthony Giddens. Weber considered himself as a social reformer, who sought to understand how change comes about, and specifically with the transitions to capitalism and modernity.
First, the German thinker, Marx, and a letter called “ Manifesto of the Communist Party”, bring about the concept of communism that was being used in many areas back in the olden days. For Mussolini, the Italian revolutionary, who adopted socialism but discovered later that it was not yet the right answer for himself. He was supported by the King Victor Emmanuel, then he became the prime minister, and established fascism for his own ruling. Initially, communism focuses on a classless society while fascists believe in a class-based society. As a result of capitalism, there were class struggles between “Bourgeoisie” the middle class and “Proletarians” working class.
The Communist Manifesto is home to the the Communist Program, a set of measures detailed out by Karl Marx, measures that are required to be enacted to achieve the communist state from the capitalist society. These measures range from radical to reasonable; a few have been modified and adapted into the United States, such as free public education for children. Others seem simply farcical to be applied to a capitalist society, even when aiming for communism. Are these measures truly feasible to be applied in a capitalistic society, or would the populace be too caught up in Capitalism to accept the path set before them? As Capitalism is seen by Marx as an essential stepping stone, despite the potential corruption of the proletariat by the bourgeois, it seems unlikely that a portion of these could be applied; specifically ones concerning radical fiscal measures.
The concept of cultural production is very much discussed by many theorists under the context of capitalism. According to Marx, the ideology and values of the ruling class is spread to the working class through what Engels called, the “false consciousness”. Marx posited that the control of the ruling class over the means of production includes not only the production of goods but also the production of ideas, values and beliefs. The working class suffers from “false consciousness” in that they are beckon to believe that the dominant ideology is in the best interest of the entire society. Through this phrase of “false consciousness”, the realities of exploitation and domination are concealed and obscured, thus allowing the ideology and values
INTRODUCTION C. Wright Mills was a mid-century Activist, Journalist, and more importantly a Sociologist who was critical of intellectual sociology and believed sociologists should use their information to advocate for social change. Further, his writings particularly addressed the responsibilities of intellectuals in post World War II society and recommended relevance and engagement over unbiased academic observation. Well known for coining the phrase ‘power elite,’ a term he used to describe the people who ran a government or organization because of their wealth and social status. He was also known and celebrated for his critiques of contemporary power structures. Influenced by Marxist ideas and the theories of Max Weber, Mills was highly
This work will look at Marx’s concepts of exploitation and how Marx’s comes to his theory of exploitation. This will include looking at how Marx viewed capitalist society and how this capitalist society was created. This will enable an explanation of exploitation. Karl Marx (1818-1883) is thought of as one of the founding fathers of sociology and his work in the mid nineteen hundreds is still discussed and taught today throughout the world. Marx developed an understanding of the term capitalism, as historic events such as the French Revolution 1789-1799 and the Industrialisation became key to a change in society.
I’d like to show how Marxism and modernization are not as against each other as it is claimed, they in fact share many similarities. Marxism is a radical political philosophy that views world from economic and sociologist lenses. Marxism acknowledges that society comprises various classes of people and that capitalistic mode of economy further deepens this class structure by creating a gap between those haves and have-nots. In other words, Marxism believes that capitalism forms two major economic classes in the society; one is bourgeoisie that holds major forms of productions and processes most of the resources of the society while the other is proletariat that sells labour to bourgeoisie and virtually suffers from hand to mouth problem all the time. To make matter worse, modernization theory, which Marxism believes is an essential element of capitalism, further worsens the imbalances between the economic classes.
Marx’s dominant influence in Germany was the philosophy of Hegel, he was influenced to the extent that he quit studying law and studied philosophy (Stevenson, et al., 1998:67). What inspired Marx in Hegel’s was the human progress in history through various developmental stages which were increasing