Recent experimental evidence suggests that caffeic acid is a potent antioxidant and might have beneficial health impact in vivo (Jayanthi and subash 2010). Caffeic acid has several biological and pharmacological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidants, anti inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and immunomodulatory activites. It has been shown that caffeic acid inhibits both lipoxygenase activity and suppresses lipid peroxidation (). Caffeic acid has been completely blocks the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Previously, we reported that caffeic acid prevents oxidative damage in UVB irradiated human blood lymphocytes (Prasad et al., 2009).
Domperidone (DOM), C22H24ClN5O2, is an antiemetic and prokinetic agent used in treatment of nausea and vomiting for decades (1, 2). It has also been used for the treatment of migraine (3, 4), gastroparesis (5) and functional dyspepsia (6). DOM is structurally related to butyrophenones. The antiemetic properties of DOM may be attributed to its dopamine (D2) receptor-blocking activity in chemoreceptor trigger zone and at gastric level. As a prokinetic agent, DOM increases esophageal and gastric peristalsis and improves antroduodenal coordination which facilitates gastric emptying (7, 8).
Volatile anesthetics can alter the dopaminergic balance in the brain, but whether they exacerbate PD is unknown. Propofol produces both dyskinesias and ablation of resting tremor, suggesting that it has both excitatory and inhibitory effects in this patient population. But both volatile agents as well as propofol has been successfully to sedate patients with PD during deep brain stimulation surgery. Dexmeditomidine appears to be safe and when used in deep brain stimulation surgery has advantage of not interfering with motor symptoms. Ketamine should be used with caution because of potential interaction between levodopa and ketamine’s sympathomimetic activity.
Mouth dissolving tablets are a new and exciting alternative to traditional tablet and iquid medication dosages. Mouth dissolving tablets dissolve on the tongue, with the aid of saliva. Mouth dissolving tablets can dissolve in as little as 1 to 2 seconds or as long as 2 to 3 minutes, depending on the different fast dissolve/disintegration technologies used to manufacture them. Orally disintegrating tablets are an appealing dosage form for many reasons. Health professionals find the mouth disintegrating tablets as a good alternative for traditional tablets and liquid forms.
The hypotensive effects of Captopril and thiazides are additive. Captopril tablets are indicated in the treatment of congestive heart failure usually in combination with diuretics and digitalis. The beneficial effect of captopril in heart failure does not require the presence of digitalis; however, most controlled clinical trial experience with captopril has been in patients receiving digitalis, as well as diuretic treatment. (-- removed HTML --) Side Effects: (-- removed HTML --) As with all pharmaceutical medicine, some unwanted effects can occur from the use of captopril tablets. Always consult a physician for medical advice before use.
This formulation is equipotent to Diprivan but is associated with a higher incidence of pain on injection.24 An alternative to emulsion formulations of propofol and associated side effects (pain on injection, risk of infection, hypertriglyceridemia, pulmonary embolism) is creation of a prodrug (Aqauvan) by cleaving groups to the parent compound that increase its water solubility (phosphate monoesters, hemisuccinates). Propofol is liberated after hydrolysis by endothelial cell surface alkaline phosphatases. In this regard, injection of the water-soluble prodrug results in propofol and dose dependent sedative effects. Compared with propofol, this prodrug has a larger volume of distribution and higher potency.24 A nonlipid formulation of propofol uses cyclodextrins as a solublilizing agent. Cyclodextrins are ring sugar molecules that form guest (propofol)-host complexes migrating between the hydrophilic center of the cyclodextrin molecule and the water-soluble phase.
This type of sedation is branded “cooperative or arousable”, to distinguish it from sedation induced by drugs acting on the GABA system, such as midazolam or propofol which produce a clouding of consciousness. (65) Sedation with Dexmedetomidine is dose dependant, however even low doses might be sufficient to produce sedation. (66) Dexmedetomidine may lack amnestic properties but amnesia is achieved with dexmedetomidine only at high plasma levels (>1.9 ng/ml) without retrograde amnesia. (67) ANALGESIA Dexmedetomidine appears to exert analgesic effects at the spinal cord level and at supraspinal sites. However there has been a considerable debate as to whether its analgesic effects are primary or simply opioid sparing.
Th e mean age of the patients was 37.3 years (range: 26?65 years). The study included 13 women and seven men. Ten patients (20 eyes) had dry eyes due to systemic rheumatologic disease (Sjogren?s syndrome), five patients (10 eyes) had dry eyes after undergoing LASIK, and five patients (five eyes) had dry eyes after cataract surgery. The patients were treated with cyclosporine 0.05% eye drops twice daily. All patients were followed up for 3 months.
It is marketed under the trade name Ikorel. Commercially available in the form of plain tablets in the market. Literature reveals that after oral administration of nicorandil tablets, the decreased bioavailability is mainly due to disintegration and dissolution process. The efficacy of drug may be improved by number of techniques such as complexation, salt formation, solid dispersion and by formulating into a dispersible tablet. Fast dissolving tablets are formulated with an objective of improving disintegrating and dissolution rate of the drug.
The number of multiple drug resistant strains are considered. This study showed that Ginger extract has an antibacterial effect. The phytochemical constituents were observed in Zingiber officinale. The outcome of their study was that the antimicrobial activity of the extracts obtained from ginger was useful and it can be relevant in different domain of research specifically in the pharmaceutical and food industries. (Antimicrobial Activity of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) Extract Against Some Selected Pathogenic Bacteria, Akintobi OA, Onoh CC, Ogele JO, Idowu AA, Ojo OV, Okonko