Experimental Methods: 1. SYNTHESIS OF 4-BENZOYL BUTYRIC ACID METHYL ESTER Materials required * 5 oxopentanoic acid : 2 gm (Aldrich) * Methanol : 50 ml * Acetic Acid (Rankem) Procedure: * 2 grams of 5 oxopentanoic acid was weighed and placed in a round bottom flask and then to it 50 ml of methanol was added. It was placed on a hot plate and the temperature was increased to 50 degrees under ambient air conditions. * To the RB, 2 ml of acetic acid was added and then by attaching a condenser the entire reaction was put on refluxing at 70 degrees Celsius in an oil bath. * For work up: * The reaction media was concentrated till about 10 ml and then dry silica gel was added.
The mixture was heated at 110 ºC and for 7 h. The mixture was washed with the water and was dried by using anhydrous sodium sulphate . Synthesis of oleyl 9,(12)-oleoyloxy-10,(13)-oleioxyoctadecanoate (OLOLOODT) (5) OLHYOODT 4 (2.5g; 0.003 mol), pyridine (1.66 g; 0.002 mol) and CCl4 (10 mL) were mixed and heated at 60 °C. OLC (16.2 g; 0.013 mol) was adding during 1 h, and the reaction mixture was refluxed for (5.5 h). The mixture was washed with the water and was dried by using anhydrous sodium sulphate . Characterization FTIR and 1H and 13C NMR FTIR of the products was recorded on a Perkin Elmer Spectrum GX spectrophotometer in the range 400-4000 cm-1.
Abstract In this experiment, the reaction kinetics of the hydrolysis of t-butyl chloride, (CH3)3CCl, was studied. The experiment was to determine the rate constant of the reaction, as well as the effects of solvent composition on the rate of reaction. A 50/50 V/V isopropanol/water solvent mixture was prepared and 1cm3 of (CH3)3CCl was added. At specific instances, aliquots of the reaction mixture were withdrawn and quenched with acetone. In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator.
Once AMD reached the coveted pH level, it was filtered using filter paper (0.45 μm) to obtain the precipitate. The filtrates were then measured for the EC level using conductivity meter, TDS level using TDS meter, and concentration of Cu2+ using PerkinElmer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) Analyst 400. All analyses were conducted in Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Mataram. Filtrates (with several pH levels) found to still contain Cu2+, would be treated to the sulfidization treatment. Sulfidization treatment using SNW from Sebau This experiment was conducted by adding pure SNW from three sampling points (T1, T2, and T3) to the AMD with three different pH levels in 1:1 ratio reaction.
The purpose of this experiment was to perform a Wittig reaction using two different methods: In method I, 250 mg aldehyde was mixed with 785 mg phosphonium salt in 5 M NaOH solvent. This mixture was stirred for thirty minutes and filter by vacuum filtration for the product. In method 2, 250 mg of aldehyde, 785 mg, benzyltriphenylphosphonium chloride, and 380 mg potassium phosphate tribasic were homogenize with a pestle and mortar. Vacuum filtration was also used in this method to attain the product. The products in both methods were used for recrystallization and TLC.
The solution of liquid and sold is decanted through the filter paper in the funnel. The solid is trapped by the filter and the fluid is drawn through the Buchner funnel into the glass flask by the vacuum. While starting your scientific experiment always remember a vacuum trap and keep it clean so it does not get contaminated. The technique is faster than gravity filtration. Vacuum filtration generally involves the use of vacuum filter flask, water pump, filter trap and sintered glass crucible.
Estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity 246 SOD activity was estimated by its ability to catalyse NBT to formazan at 560nm 247 according to the method of Beyer and Fridovich (40). Five ml of reaction mixture 248 containing 50 mm phosphate buffer (pH 7.8), 13 mm methionine, 75 mm NBT, 2 mm 249 riboflavin, 0.1 mm EDTA and the enzyme extract. Absorbance of sample was read at 560 250 nm. The difference of percentage reduction of colour development in blank and the 251 sample was calculated. Fifty percent reduction in the colour was taken as one unit of 252 enzyme activity and was expressed in enzyme units per milligram protein (U mg-1 253 protein).
Firstly, 0.3 g Fe3O4 was ultrasonically dispersed into 150 ml solvent (Vmethanol/Vwater=1/1) for 20 min to obtain a uniform suspension. A 100 ml alkaline solution (0.32 g Na2CO3, 0.48 g NaOH) was added dropwise into the suspension until pH ca. 10.0 and kept for 5 min, then another 100 ml salt solution (1.02 g Mg(NO3)2⋅6H2O and 1.2 g Al(NO3)3⋅9H2O) and above alkaline solution were simultaneously added maintaining the pH in 9.5-10.0. The resultant was stirred for 5 min followed separation by using a magnet and thoroughly washing with deionized water and alcohol and dried at 60 °C overnight giving product Fe-Mg/Al
Hanusaiodine solution, chloroform, aqueous KI solution, Na2S2O3 and starch solution is used. Iodine values are calculated from the difference between the blankaand the test sample. For peroxide value; solvent mixture (composed of glacial acetic acid and chloroform), saturated KI solution, starch solution and Na2S2O3 soluiton is used and peroxideavalues are calculated. A) Iodine Value: Hanus Method In this experiment, iodine value of sun floweraoil was determined with Hanusamethod. Blank solution and oil solution were prepared and stored in the dark.
With this spectro- scopic technique, it is possible to analyze particles in the micron order and to identify species at molecular level with minimum or no preparation at all. In micro-Raman spectroscopy, the laser beam is focused by means of a microscope objective, employing a backscattering con- guration; thus, the Raman scattered light is collected within the cone dened by the same objective . Since the discovery of the Raman eect, instrumental improve- ments have continued to give new impulses to the Ra- man spectroscopic research such as are the