Multiple Sclerosis Report

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Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that causes the demyelination of the myelin sheath which surrounds and protects nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is a complicated and unpredictable neurological disease, and it can affect any area of the brain and spinal cord (“Multiple Sclerosis: Answers At Your Fingertips.”, 2010). According to Richman, Schub, and Pravikoff (2015) there can be four clinical types of MS, there is relapsing-remitting (RRMS), primary-progressive (PPMS), secondary-progressive (SPMS), and progressive-relapsing (PRMS). PPMS has a steady progression of symptoms. SPMS has serious progression of symptoms later throughout the disease. PRMS has a steady progression of symptoms. Multiple sclerosis usually occurs in people who…show more content…
It was thought that if you have MS you should not receive the flu shot because it would increase the risk of relapse. Studies have shown that the flu shot does not actually increase the risk of a relapse or affect the disease negatively. The flu itself is more likely to cause a relapse than getting the flu shot (“Multiple Sclerosis: Answers At Your Fingertips.”, 2010). MS is very unclear about the future and is unpredictable in its symptoms. There are a variety of symptoms with MS. They can be temporary and minor, or they can be more persistent and problematic. Symptoms of MS can be problems with bladder, bowels, pain, sensations, cramps, spasticity, fatigue, cognition, mood, mobility, balance, tremor, speech, swallowing, eyesight, hearing, and sexual dysfunction (“Multiple Sclerosis: Answers At Your Fingertips.”, 2010). Another common symptom is fatigue, it affects around 70-90% of people with MS. Fatigue is different than normal tiredness and can really affect the quality of life. Fatigue management begins with looking into what causes the fatigue to worsen and possibly change lifestyle habits. MS is such a diverse condition but it is important to maintain a level of fitness yet there is not a specific…show more content…
The main treatment goal of MS is to prevent lasting neurological damage. MS treatment was confined to the treatment of symptoms but now there are disease-modifying drugs also known as DMDs. DMDs help to reduce rates of relapse, decrease the number of nervous system lesions, and slow or prevent the onset of disability. DMDs are used for treatment of relapse and for delaying disease progression in patients with RRMS. There is a DMD known as IFN used for treatment in the initial demyelinating event and it might prevent development. There could be serious effects that include anemia, seizures, thrombocytopenia, cardiomyopathy, hepatotoxicity, depression, and increased risk for suicide (Caple, Uribe, & Pravikoff, 2015). Corticosteroids are used as the main treatment for relapses and are used to shorten the duration of attacks. Anti-inflammatory helps restore the blood-brain barrier. There are side effects from long-term use such as hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis, cataracts, and ulcers. Immunotherapeutic agents help to reduce inflammation and hinder the immune response, and they may reduce relapses by about 30%. There are also immunosuppressant which help to decrease the rate of relapse but it does not have an effect on the progression of MS. These are typically used when there is not a response to the immunotherapy drugs. There are a multitude of pharmacologic treatments for MS but there can also be surgical

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