As Chomsky (1980: 48) internalized linguistic grammar system is "a certain mental structure consisting of a system of rules and principles that generate and relate mental representation of various types." Universal Grammar form the initial state of a child by all the knowledge and experience that the child is already equipped with input previously. The primary linguistic data (PLD) are helping the child critically to make the child able to determined the specific grammar form in its appropriate place. According to Lydia White "a language-specific lexicon is built up, and parameters of Universal Grammar are set to values appropriate for the language in question" (2). The grammar can
Psycholinguists believe that children are born with the ability to learn and engage actively with a language, take the initiative to respond, and make meaning. Such practice is known as protoconversations; which is the conversations between infants and caregivers. The way infants make certain movements to express understanding shows that infants have a coherent organized mind that specifies the timing and form of body movement to communicate before they even know the language (Gillen, 158-9). For that reason, the linguist Noam Chomsky, believes that children are born with an inherited ability to learn any language as it is already imprinted on the child’s mind and therefore; Chomsky suggests that every child has a ‘Language Acquisition Device,’ that has the major principles of a language and its grammatical structures into the child’s brain, so children only learn the vocabulary and apply the syntactic structure to form sentences
The child learns to speak by learning the rules of social behavior, the establishment of meanings, and then learn the basic rules of English grammar .As the first child experiences of language are with the caregiver, like ;parents , So the child will influenced by what the child had heard of caregiver. Furthermore , the adult or the caregivers have to use a simple way to communicate with them and with exaggerated intonation and this strategy referred to "child- directed- speech". In fact , Studies proved; the children have common features, as there are mental processes of the child reveal the relationship between the utterance (grammar and vocabulary) and understanding of the language and the world around him. All children born with awareness that the language is corrupted from (verb phrases and noun phrases ) but they do not know how to combine them together , that according to the Theoretical linguist Chomsky. Also, the children learn the essential elements in sentences, where they begin to use the language establishing short sentences like consisting of two words to express simple semantic relationships and this is what is called (telegraphic language) ,such as "The box is red" , the child will express this by saying "box red".
Vygotsky introduces human development model, Zone of Proximal Development, which is also known as sociocultural model. This model elaborates how a child is developed through problem solving under the guidance of adults and peers. He believes there are two stages of development in every child: the stages included observe the interaction between others and develope the ability to communicate. He also realized when the children come to problem solving and reasoning stage, they can do better with interacting with the person around them. Interactionists approach the concept of give-and-take in social interaction as the fundamental development of language.
, Gathercole , Hitch , Service , & Martin , 1997) is PM capacity. It is noted that there is a clear link between PM capacity and vocabulary development which can be manifested in children’s language development. For example, children’s performance on the non-word repetition (NWRP). With regards to word learning , children’s performance on the NWRP test predict their ability to learn new words in their own language ( e.g. , Gathercole & Baddeley , 1990) and in a second language as well (e.g.
The general definition of Oral Proficiency in English is the learner’s ability to speak and use English for interaction with others. For the development of proficiency in oral English must acquire vocabulary, earn grammar rules, and upgrade an understanding of the subtle semantics of English. At the same time, acquiring proficiency in English involves learning how to communicate with others. (In Fred Genesee, 2006p14) because oral proficiency is a multifaceted concept. 2.
According to this hypothesis, children will create a grammar even if not exposed to a proper language during their early years. Some of the strongest support for this hypothesis comes from the study of pidgin languages. These are new, primitive languages created when two or more groups of people having different native languages are in contact with each
Studies from different researchers(Ellis ,2008) (Ellis, 1988) demonstrate that children acquire certain grammatical structures, including negatives, in a specific order in their L1 and that these patterns are similar in different languages, so studies of second language acquisition cared for demonstrating how this is informative for second language teaching. It has been hypothesized that there is a fairly stable order of acquisition of structures in language acquisition, that is, one can see clear 1 similarities across acquirers as to which structures tend to be acquired early and which tend to be acquired late (Brown, 1973; Dulay and Burt, 1975). Acquirers need not have a conscious awareness of the "rules" they possess, and may self-correct only on the basis of a "feel" for
Phonemics Awareness in Marungko Approach as a Prerequisite in Learning to Read Phonemic awareness is the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. It is the first thread in the tapestry of reading foundation skill with which the threads of reading are woven (Lumberg, 1998 as cited on The Modern Teacher). Therefore to understand the alphabetic principle, one must recognize that spoken words consist of a sequence of sounds and this understanding is called phonemic awareness (McCormick, 1999). Once individual letter-sounds are mastered, children are taught how to blend them together to read words. Stanovich (1993-94) defines that, “phonemic awareness is the best predictor of the ease of early reading
This (innate Universal Grammar) helps to explain similarities in the developmental order of the firsta dn the second language acquisition, which is different to the order in which grammatical items are presented in most textbooks. This argument could also be called “the obsolete approach to teaching grammar as the order in which grammar is taught needs to be revised. The rule of law argument vs The knowledge-how argument The rule of law argues that grammar enables the transmission of knowledge from the teacher to the learner as this structured system can be taught, learned and tested. Grammar satisfies the need for rules, order and discipline in institutional contexts such as school. The knowledge-how argues that language is learned by experimental learning – learning by doing – like riding a bike.