This academic journal defines and goes in depth about stereotype threat. In the beginning of the journal, the authors give real life example of stereotype threats and how they negative affect people. They then go on to define what stereotype threat is. The rest of the journal explores the psychology behind stereotype threat and why people continue to fall victim to it.
proven as an effective theory (Akers 1998, 200; Agnew, 2005). The general theory of crime and delinquency shares some of the strengths of social learning theory except this specific theory focuses on a bigger picture of what causes crime and is showed through what Agnew refers as life domains (Akers 1998, 200; Agnew, 2005). The theory also focuses on risk factors and explains how people go through these risk factors across their lifetime (Agnew, 2005). The weaknesses of this theory is that it lacks empirical testing just like the labeling theory but a strength is that social learning theory, deterrence theory, rational choice theory, and Thornberry’s interactional theory of delinquency have been empirically tested which supports this theory
Court Judges, prosecutors, and even law enforcement officers very often cannot resist the urge to impart their very own passions and interest into the administration of justice. Far too often an individual’s social, background, and even financial status plays a significant role into the courts official’s decisions and administration of justice. The decision to impose a stiff penalty as oppose to showing
Aaron Hernandez is a previous NFL player for the New England Patriots. In 2013 Hernandez was discovered blameworthy of first degree murder. The next year he was likewise discovered liable of a double homicide. Why might a 40 million dollar rising star perpetrate such a wrongdoing? Numerous theories have been produced to clarify criminal conduct. While a few theories are not as regular, others have developed and are utilized as a part of numerous criminal reviews today. Cutting edge criminologists consolidate the most important aspects of sociology, psychology, anthropology, and biological theories to advance their comprehension of criminal behavior. Rational choice theory, psychological, biological, and strain theory are used to analyze the
Criminology is the wider area that is used to evaluate the context of crime. The scientific study of criminals and crime is used for evaluating the basis and reasons of crime done by people. It makes use of different theories and school of thought in order to analyse the reasons behind criminal activities. The main purpose of this paper is to consider one criminology theory or school of thought. The criminology theory that is used for analysing the requirements of this paper is rational choice theory. According to this theory, the people focus on making logical choice regarding the circumstances in which to commit crime. It is noticed that this theory makes use of utilitarian belief under which man is the actor who considers costs, means,
The central idea behind Jean Hampton's Moral Education Theory of Punishment (MET) is that it is best to educate criminals on their wrongdoings without handing down any physical punishments or ramifications. Hampton believes that excessive harm is not a moral response to a crime committed by a person. Rather, she argues that the point of basic punishment is to teach the wrongdoer that the action they did or wanted to do is forbidden, on the basis that it is morally wrong according to society. Therefore, according to Hampton, it is much healthier to educate criminals rather than handing down difficult physical punishments, which simply hurts the criminal and can be unproductive. To elaborate, Hampton proposes that any form of punishment is justified
Crime can be defined as an illegal action committed by people and that action is punishable by law. There are many reasons that drive people to commit crime. Some of them would be poverty, depression and other social and mental disorders. For this paper, I chose to write about the Greyhound Bus beheading case. There are many theories that would explain why Vincent Li (the murderer) committed the crime. Some of the theories that I chose to include for this case are the demonological theory, the classical and the strain theory of crime.
Situational crime prevention (SCP) and rational choice theory (RCT), together, provide an insightful explanation as to why people commit crimes and what can be done to deter them. Much of the work done in RCT and SCP was founded by Derek Cornish and Ronald V. Clarke, who wanted to understand the decision-making process of potential offenders and focus on the spatial and situational factors that make such crime possible (Farrell and Hodgkinson, 2015). This paper aims to explore SCP and its relationship to RCT, as well as analyze the works of Keith Hayward and Graham Farrell in their discussion of these ideas. This paper has four objectives: first, the paper will discuss SCP and RCT and explain the link between the two concepts. Second, this paper will examine Hayward 's discussion of RCT, SCP, and cultural criminology. Third, I will explore Farrell 's critique of Hayward 's article and consider his arguments made in response to Hayward 's conclusions. Fourth, this paper will engage in its own critique of both Hayward 's and Farrell 's work and conclude with which article makes the most compelling argument.
For my article I chose, “Decision Making in the Crime Commission Process: Comparing Rapist, Child Molesters, and Victim-Crossover Sex Offenders” by Eric Beauregard, Benoit Leclerc, and Patrick Lussier. In traditional beliefs it suggests sex offenders are mainly driven by an uncontrollable urge to sexually offend. This article takes a looks into comparing how rapist, child molesters, and victim-crossover sex offenders make their criminal decisions. It investigated how decision-making is involved in target selection. The researchers used mixed methods along with Clarke and Cornish’s decision-making model to evaluate the offender’s actions. In the first studies, sex offenders’ decision-making was investigated using the rational choice approach.
Why do people commit crimes? What goes through their minds before they actually commit a crime? These are questions asked from society to criminologist every time one decides they want to commit a crime. Criminologists has given us different crime causations, theories, to explain the answer to these questions. A theory is a speculation about how phenomena, behavior, or process are caused and what takes place after the cause is determined (Anderson, 2015). There are numerous theories that have evolved over time to explain why crimes are committed. These theories include anomie, strained, social control, and rational choice theory. In this research paper I will be focusing on rational choice theory. Majority of these theories focus on a macro-level, which is the largest, meanwhile some focus on a micro-level, the smaller level, depending on the circumstances. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize how rational choice theory is integrate with different crimes. The crimes included are burglary, white collar crime, and murder.
A special case of the rational choice theory is the deterrence theory, which emphasizes the costs of legal sanctions (Liska & Messner, 1999). While the rational choice theory was initially applied to the field of economics, and considered all costs, the deterrence theory was initially applied to the field of law and only considered legal costs. Accordingly, as a deterrent for committing crime, increasing the severity of punishment, increasing the certainty of punishment, and increasing the celerity of punishment will all increase the legal costs for committing crime and, consequently, decrease the benefits versus cost ratio. Furthermore, there is a specific deterrence and a general deterrence (Barkan, 2006). Specific deterrence discourages individuals from committing crimes because they have learned through personal experience (i.e., by being punished) that the cost for their criminal behaviors is too high (Akers & Sellers, 2009). General deterrence, on the other hand, discourages individuals from committing crimes because they have learned through observation (i.e., by observing the suffering of offenders who have been punished) that the cost of committing crime is too high. By using fear, the behaviors of would-be criminals can be modified.
The idea that all criminal offenders are rational and acting in the pursuit of their own self-interest is not indicative of all criminals. Firstly a major flaw in this mindset is that it assumes all criminal acts are well thought out and are committed after weighing the benefits of the crime against the possible punishments if they are caught at some point. Not all, or even most, crimes fit into this category of planned and decided action. Many crimes are committed in a very irrational manner with no forethought or planning. These crimes, often referred to as crimes of passion, are committed by people who are unable or unwilling to pause for reflection and are acting without any self-control. Their emotions are sending them such powerful signals
In the movie Scarface we view go in depth about some life events of Cuban refugee Tony Montana when he enters the United States and receives his green card. We also see what leads him to his criminal activities of becoming a national drug lord. In this film there are a number of different theories that can be applied. I will be using Cornish and Clarkes Rational Choice Theory, along with Robert Agnew’s Strain theory in order to analyze Tony’s reasoning behind committing these crimes. I will be using examples from the film Scarface in order to draw and link these theories with the film.
Theories help answer two very important questions; how and why. The purpose of a theory is to explain how and why certain things and/or events are connected to other things and/or events. Everything done in the criminal justice field is based on theory. In criminology, theories answer questions about criminal behavior that would have otherwise not been answered. Theories give clues to how and why people commit criminal acts. By providing the motives behind criminal activity, theories give criminologists a better understanding of crime (Bohm & Vogel, 2015). Theories of criminal behavior can relate to human nature, biological issues, psychological issues, sociological issues, economic issues, or a collaboration of two or more of these factors.
There is a worldwide trend in the use of penal imprisonment for serious offenses as capital punishment has been renounced by an increasing number of countries. Harsh punishments include capital punishment, life imprisonment and long-term incarceration. These forms of punishments are usually used against serious crimes that are seen as unethical, such as murder, assault and robbery. Many people believe that harsher punishments are more effective as they deter would-be criminals and ensure justice is served. Opposition towards harsh punishments have argued that harsher punishments does not necessarily increase effectiveness because they do not have a deterrent effect, do not decrease recidivism rates and do not provide rehabilitation. In addition,