Being classified as the “other’ is an idea that was first coined by Edward Said in his text titled Orientalism. In this text Said critiques the cultural representations of Orientalism written and performed by a western, biased view of the eastern hemisphere. In western writing and media, the people who hail from the eastern hemisphere are seen and depicted as the ‘other’. They are viewed as uncivilized, lesser, terrorists and opposites of everything on the western side of the world. They are judged based on race and other factors and displayed in a negative way that greatly impacts how they are viewed and treated in other countries.
In reality, the accumulated knowledge set by Orientalism hardly embrace the wide range of diversity among the cultures of the East. Nonetheless, numerous literary works, arts, media and even scientific reports continue to portray the Orient based on the descriptions and artificial images set by the Orientalist discourse (Film). Such descriptions infuse stereotypes into people’s attitude and behaviors toward the Orientals. This is because people who do not have direct experience of the Orient tend to form their thoughts and imagination based on the indirect experiences provided by books, media, films or other secondary sources. In particular, Said mentions in his interview about the generalizations made on Oklahoma bombing incident to exemplify such stereotypes in people’s thoughts (Film).
This shared technique of colonial discourse is known as the “partial representation,” which is utilized to maintain imperial position over the colonies. In Orientalism, Said believes that the Orientalist viewpoint created certain images about the Orientals, which usually hold negative features based on the binary opposition between the West and the East. These generalized images hardly embrace the wide range of diversity and only represent partial aspects of Eastern culture. This process of representation may lead to “cultural stereotyping,” infusing misconceptions into people’s understanding and beliefs about the Orient and enabling the Westerners to remain in the dominant position over the Orientals (Said
Henzell-Thomas (2004) identified the major problems which were perpetuated by Islamophobia and one of them being “the misleading association of Islam with specific cultural identities and practices, especially Asian and African. Sajid (2005) further reiterates this by “Islamophobia is a new form of racism whereby Muslims, an ethno-religious group, not a race, are nevertheless, constructed as a race.” The media in western hemispheres have been responsible for the misunderstanding of the Islamic faith as it is constantly depicted as a religion that condones acts of violence, terror and political unrest. It encourages the thoughts of individuals that Western culture is superior to that of Islamic culture. The media also fails to differentiate between Islamic beliefs and Islamic extremists, who are two different things which also facilitates misconceptions about their beliefs. Eduardo Bonilla-Silva asserts that the bigger picture is
Said is very critical about how the Western scholars have studied Eastern countries because Orientalists have books that are only focusing on the Orient and the Orientalist as their main authority even today, the Orient being the Easterners and the Occident being the Westerners. This therefore leads to Western novelists, theorists, poets promoting the distinction or difference between the East and West and creating theories, social
Said´s thesis on Orientalism (1978) and proposes that farang is an Occidentalising project conceived and conducted through Siam´s constantly changing historical and cultural experiences with and against the West. Edward Said is well known for his work on colonialism and orientalism in which he criticizes how knowledge about the Orient has been shaped. He directly challenged what Euro-American scholars traditionally referred to as "Orientalism", which is an entrenched structure of thought, a pattern of making certain generalizations about the part of the world known as the Orient. Orientalism is a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient´s special place in European-Western experience. It has helped to define Europe
Through their writings they distort real story of India so as to give emphasis to their superior status. In contemporary non-fiction books written by western writers’ they portray “East” as savage minded, criminals and “West” as superior, dominant type. Through this envision they created an image of East as the “Other” which is no way similar to them. This ideate distinction between East and West formed the basis of Edward Said’s “Orientalism”. The Eurocentric superiority perception compels them to distort the reality according to their preferences.
Besides religious and cultural differences between Turkey and mainland Europe, nineteenth century Europeans discriminated on the basis of literal physical appearance due to their construction of racial hierarchy. Nevertheless, Safie, who society should consider a traditional Other, integrates with society and stands apart from the otherness of
The myth of the “model minority” is ultimately a stereotypical portrayal of Asian Americans that invites anti-Asian racism in a unique way, as it masquerades as flattery and something that is desirable, which makes it all the more difficult to entirely reject the idea from society. While some view the concept as a compliment towards Asians as they are automatically considered academically advanced, through its pseudoscientific connotations and enabling of microagressions, along with psychological impacts, the model minority myth is but the latest manifestation of a long history of anti-Asian racism. The earliest interactions between the United States and China may be regarded as the foundation of a long history of anti-Asian tendencies. The United States’ trade