The United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights shows that there has been a constant overrepresentation of minority children in what is known as special education courses. The majority of this overrepresentation occurs for African American children. Unfortunately this has been occurring for years, during the 1980’s African American students only made up sixteen percent of the total school population make up, however they represented thirty-eight percent of children that were in classes for students that were in need of special education courses. Forty years later this is still occurring, there is still an overrepresentation of African American children in special education courses, which leads to an overrepresentation of African …show more content…
2009) . More specially, students who have emotional needs and learning disabilities are usually pushed into the juvenile just system. Studies suggest that there is a large amount of schools that fail to identify students that actually are eligible for special education. There is a constant problem of confusing (or inaccurately labeling) a student who actually has behavioral issues due to emotional disturbance with a student who is in need of special education services. The educational system’s failure to recognize and address this leads to many of our minority students in the juvenile detention system. It is important to know that the majority of these students are African American and when comparing to white students African American students are four times more likely to be referred to special education services. In, The Gestalt of The School-To Prison Pipeline: The Duality of Overrepresentation of Minorities In Special Education and Racial Disparity In School Discipline on Minorities, author Torin Togut outlines a long term relationship African American children have had with the United States of America’s justice system. What led Togut to dive into this study is the story of now Dr. Billy Hawkins. According to
The article is discussing how public schools are forcing students of color and who are economically disadvantaged out of schools and placed into juvenile justice systems. The author explains there is a high number of students who do not graduate from high school; with numbers steadily increasing each year. Therefore, the author finds it necessary to discuss school discipline policies in the article and present how different students find themselves being
Jamelle Bouie’s article titled, Still Separate and Unequal-Why American schools are becoming segregated once again, touches on the history of desegregation in American schools but focuses how statistically minority students are more likely to attend majority- minority schools than in previous generations. This article points out that poverty and segregation play a direct role in the school system. While drawing connections between school segregation, concentrated poverty, entrenched segregation, and housing discrimination it also presents the authors not so optimistic view on future reforms to segregated schools, districts, and educational equality as he states in regard to education equality, “To do this, however, requires a commitment to
The school to prison pipeline is an organized nationwide system consisting of local, state and federal education. It is also formed to drive students out of school and into the criminal and juvenile systems, which may result in students dropping out of school early. The school to prison pipeline mainly targets students who are of color and those who struggle with some form of disability. This system is disturbing because, there is nothing being accomplished by removing students from education, which will eventually cause them to struggle before adulthood and even after they reach this point of life. The school to prison pipeline is detrimental because, students may drop out of school, be subject to relying on government assistance to survive, and disregard the decision to further their education because of past experiences.
Race Mental and intellectual disabilities Women Juvenile offenders Answer: Many of my views about race, legal representation, and different types of offenders were either solidified or drastically changed throughout this book. One of the main reasons for this was my lack of knowledge on how the legal system really works and how it brutally discriminates against people of a certain class, race, age, or physical/mental ability. Some of the discrimination against Black
Barrett, D. E., & Katsiyannis, A. (2008). The Seattle decision on race and public schools: Implications for special education. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 4(6) Retrieved from http://escholarship.bc.edu/education/tecplus/vol4/iss6/art6 In the article, The Seattle Decision on Race and Public Schools” Implications for Special Education by David Barrett and Antonis Katsiyannis the authors give information on why Special Education shouldn’t be used to segregate kids of different races. The purpose of this article was to provide past historical information to support how special education should be implicated.
Many people do not know about the inequalities that African Americans go through in the public education system or choose to ignore it. Such as receiving unequal education as the white kids in rich areas, having old textbooks ten to twenty year old or sometimes suffer from discrimination in public schools they attend. The fact is that public schools that African Americans attend aren’t slightly unequal they enormously unequal from public schools funding to segregation resurfacing in schools. While at least everyone (below 18 or 19) in U.S has a right to get an equal public education. Low test scores and graduation rates show that African American students are being left behind in education, public schools African Americans attend are being
There are certain tools that are essential in schools for the success of education. Whether it be reading, writing, comprehending, or problem solving; these are all tools that are advantageous to possess in one’s education. Unfortunately, not all groups are able to acquire all these tools as easily as other groups are. It is unequivocal that education plays a major role in one’s future, but certain students cannot achieve their ideal education because of the lack of a proper education system. This is what leads to the inequality in education for students of color who are from an underprivileged area, compared to students on the contrary.
In the documentary “Education Under Arrest”, Tavis Smiley conducted interviews with various educators, advocates, juvenile court administrators, and youths on issues pertaining to school-to-prison pipeline, stigmatization of delinquents and solutions to juvenile justice reform. The first major type of correctional institution that Tavis Smiley conducted his interview at was the Juvenile Justice Center in Spokane, Washington. This juvenile center deals with youth who have dropped out of school, gotten into serious trouble, or those who have recidivated. Devin, Darlis, and Eric were prime examples of the representation of this center; Devin was caught up in drugs and alcohol at the age of 13, Darlis has an anger issues and tends to fall back
Although, discriminatory discipline overtly plays a significant role in pushing youth particularly students of color out of the classrooms and into the pipeline, this shines a light on the fact that our public school system is failing our children regardless of race. While a faulty public school system can not foster students educational development nor prepare students to be responsible citizens who lead economically and socially productive lives. Therefore, stopping the bleeding of school-to-prison pipeline is merely a prelude to a much larger social justice challenge—the right to quality education that constructs the well-being for all.
The School-to-Prison Pipeline: A Primer for Social Workers, a study by Susan McCarter (2017), was written to give a summary of the School-to-prison pipeline in an attempt to break down the factors surrounding children being funneled into this path by their respective school systems around the country. The author explains the correlation between the School-to-prison pipeline and its disparate outcomes for students of color, students with disabilities, and students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (p. 54-55). McCarter presents implications for social workers and multiple specific strategies to reduce the detrimental effects of the School-to-prison pipeline. Susan McCarter, PhD, MSW, is an associate professor
The Brown v. Board of Education was a groundbreaking case that made segregated schools unconstitutional, but unfortunately schools are still not equal in 2017. When it comes to school discipline African-Americans are given harsher consequences. “Racially biased school discipline contributes to what’s known as the ‘school-to-prison pipeline’ (Quinlan, Casey). After a student is suspended numerous times, the next disciplinary action is explosion, then after explosion, the next step is the juvenile system. Secondly, two other factors that contribute to the unequal education quality are white history lessons, and segregated schools.
The literature review clearly has shown that there is a phenomenon called School to Prison, Schoolhouse to Jailhouse, or Public Education to Prison Pipeline. Therefore, Jeremy Thompson (2016) says, “Zero-tolerance policies in schools result in high suspension rates and expulsion rates among students in general, but disproportionately affect minority students, especially African-Americans because students who have been suspended or expelled are more likely than not to end up in the Criminal Justice
However, with diversity comes inequalities that people of color face throughout their lives. A particular issue in the United States, specifically in education, is unequal opportunities and treatment in regard to race. Research shows that students from single-parent black families had a high chance of dropping out and participating in illicit behavior (Hallinan 54). While the issue of race is a complicated issue to breach for