One of the theoretical and empirical books and articles pertaining to linguistic politeness, and the perception of face has been published in the last decades. Traditionally, politeness has been studied on the basis of ordinary conversation. However, it has drawn attention to its role within workplace and institutional contexts. In addition to that, it has been devoted to an overview and basic comparison of theoretical accounts of politeness, concentrating on the presentation of Brown and Levinson’s model of politeness, which represents the main theoretical framework. Within this approach, as well as in Leech’s model, politeness is preserved as an essential principle regulating communication towards non-conflict management of interpersonal
His ideas were adopted later by Hutchinson and Waters (1987), who advocate a learning-centered approach in which learners’ learning needs play a vital role. If the analyst, by means of target situation analysis, tries to find out what learners do with language (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)learning needs analysis will tell us "what the learner needs to do in order to learn" (ibid: 54). Obviously, they advocate a process-oriented approach, not a product- or goal-oriented one. For them ESP is not "a product but an approach to language teaching which is directed by specific and apparent reasons for learning"
In support of his findings, Skinner eventually realized that human beings could not only respond also manage their environment to induce results. However, Skinner and Watson both repudiated that thinking or emotion plays a significant role in determining behavior. Instead, humans appear to learn many behaviors -including languages- through repetitions and positive or negative reinforcement. Scientifically speaking, behaviorism explains how learning takes place. When it is taken into account in the field of language teaching, it shows how languages are learned.
Furthermore, they also adopted speaker’s rationality in conversation introduced by Grice (1975). As for Goffman (1967) defined the concept of face as the “positive social value of a person effectively claims for himself by the live others assume he has taken a particular contact” (1967, p. 5). Brown and Levinson defined the concept of face with “the aspects of face as basic wants, which every member knows every other member desires, and which in general it is in the interests of every member to partially satisfy” (1994, p. 62). By doing this, the concepts of positive and negative face imply the notion of want being restated as follows: “Negative face is the want of every competent adult member that his actions be unimpeded by others; positive face is the want of every member that his wants be desirable to at least some others” (Brown & Levinson, 1994, p. 62). Therefore, the relationship between the concept of face and interaction
To elaborate, language rules are learned at an early age, as in English we can say “blog” but we would not say “lbog.” As a consequence, this has led to a feature of total feedback, that allows humans to interpret and make corrections on language mistakes. In addition, Noam Chomsky (1957), an American linguist, described Syntactic Structures, which is known as grammar. It incorporates several aspects of languages, including phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. As a result, those elements have influenced sentences to be formed infinitely, but each sentence may have a finite sequence of sounds or letters. At the same time, those aspects of grammar also allow humans to be able to break down a word into smaller units, and make up meaningful messages from meaningless units, which are the feature of discreteness and duality of patterning.
McNair (2007) explained phonics as it is instruction in letter-sound relationships. According to Villaume and Brabham (2003) many authors express the aim of phonics instruction as the ability of students to develop their knowledge of the alphabetic principle. Reeb (2011) mentioned the purpose of phonics instruction which is to be flexible and find learner’s needs to be able to get the importance of reading not to find one method or strategy that works for all students equally.
119). With this in mind, the lesson discussed will make use of the Direct Method, which prioritizes meaningful communication over analysis of the focus language. Since the authentic text is an opinion piece that may evoke varying opinions on the part of its readers, the Affective Humanistic Approach should be employed to ensure a classroom atmosphere that is supportive and comfortable. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE SKILLS Modern pedagogical literature typically classifies language skills in the four named categories. Two of them, listening and reading, are classified as “receptive” skills, while speaking and writing are considered “productive” skills.” The ITTO textbook (ITTO p. 122) makes the interesting observation that language teaching might best prioritize the aural skills of listening and speaking, a sequence that would mimic the order in which a child naturally acquires his or her first language.
Literature review In cross-cultural interactions the importance of politeness awareness is most evident. And this is in these types of interactions that the need for politeness education is felt. Many researchers have examined the importance of such instructions (Alcón Soler, 2005; Gu, 2011; Halenko & Jones, 2011; Koike & Pearson, 2005); however, in studies it is usually forgotten that language learners are already socialized into politeness conventions of their l1 and this knowledge can affect their linguistics and pragmatic choices in L2. This effect weather positive or negative can be used in educating learners to have smooth communication in target language. Also it is noted that one of the problematic areas which need special attention in education is disagreement which has the potential of becoming aggravated if the interlocutors fail to manage it in polite way.
Furthermore, Mark also quoted a criticism on the usage of traditional method, which is Present, Practice and Produce (PPP), failed to educate learners on the application of grammar in communication. In the article, Mark emphasized that teaching grammar in context is able to show learners how grammatical structures function in English Language. However, Mart neglected one of the most significant principles to teach grammar in context, which is how could teacher decide when to integrate which component of grammar in context. Chin (2000) stated that one of the most essential key to teach grammar in context is to be sensitive to individual students ' readiness in learning and applying grammatical concepts. Hence, spotlight should be also put on the control measures of teacher in integrating grammar in context.
Girish Karnad’s play, Hayavadana (1971), is worthy play because it is the pioneering work to translate into notable practice the debate over the usefulness of original performance genres in the development of a new, quintessentially ‘Indian’ theatre. Karnad adapts social myths and legends in his plays which has to be seen as an act of impulse rather intention. Karnad himself says in his “Introduction” to Three Plays that the myth made him enabled to set to himself a set of values that I had been unable to arrive at rationally. In Hayavadana, Karnad deals with the question of Body and Head with a different purpose. Interestingly, the main and the sub-plot deal with the philosophical and moral aspect of the problem raising more important issues relating to the human existence.