Marsha McMillen Unit 4 Pharmacology Assignment The reasons the nitroglycerin did not work, is because Mr. Smith had consumed four whisky drinks with his dinner. He took the nitro pills one hour ago and then ten minutes before calling 911. He should have taken his pill every 5 minutes, but not to exceed more than 3 pills. When taking Nitroglycerin you should not take it after consuming alcohol, and you should follow the instruction as to how to take them. His ECG was not showing like a myocardial infarction. As the paramedic I would think that the chest pain was caused by indigestion.
1.What is your comfort level with medication administration? If your agency/patient population includes IV Therapy, what is your comfort level with this skill? What aspects (6 rights) of medication administration do you find easy to do? What aspects are challenging? What steps can you take to improve your confidence/safety in this aspect of patient care?
Principles for safe medication administration: • All medications must be administered according to a physician’s orders. • The medication orders must be clear, legible and not open. • The same person should select, prepare, administer and record the administration. • Doses must be prepared for only one patient at a time, immediately before the intended use • Medications should be prepared for immediate administration to a single patient and not retained for later use due to the risks of contamination, potential instability, potential mix-up with other medications and to maintain security of the medication • All medications must be stored in patient care areas in the same container as received from pharmacy. • All RNs and ENs without notation must successfully complete the Medication Assessment Paper prior to administering medications.
Appendix NCLEX Questions The following two alternate format NCLEX questions were created related to the case study information and focus on the nursing responsibilities prior to blood administration and the signs/symptoms of acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. NCLEX Question #1 The RN on day shift is looking after Anita, a 93-year-old female patient in with an upper GI bleed. Anita’s latest lab results show an Hgb of 62
Case Study 2: CHF Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a disease process in which the cardiac function as a pump cannot meet the body requirements resulting in fluid buildup in tissues such as arms, abdomen, limbs, and lungs. Symptoms can include fatigue, edema, dyspnea, and reduced tolerance to activities. Causes of CHF are cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and atherosclerosis, etc. Cardiomyopathy is an illness that affects the myocardium (heart muscles) and includes three types: dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive cardiomyopathy. Managing a patient with this condition requires a proper treatment plan, techniques for education, and an all-inclusive teaching strategy.
Heart failure is when the heart is not functioning properly and becomes unable to supply the body properly with oxygen. Congestive heart failure is when this lack of function begins affecting the lungs ability to function normally by filling the alveoli with fluid. During normal functioning of the cardiovascular system, blood arrives at the right atrium of the heart via the vena cava. The right atrium empties blood into the right ventricle, which pumps it’s contents into the arterioles surrounding the alveoli of the lungs. From the lungs, the blood voyages to the left atrium of the heart.
About 1 and every 5 Americans today, are unable to afford the medicine that need to get better. ( ) Many of the major pharmaceutical companies are making billions in profit by having the control of selling and distributing prescribed medication. This leads the United States in a situation that the American people are paying some of the highest prices in the world for prescription drugs. These drugs companies making heaps of profit by controlling the market which leads to millions of Americans not being able to afford the prescription medicine that they desperately
2.1.3. Pharmacists have served varying roles related to vaccines dating as far back as the 1800s (Hogue, Grabenstein, Foster & Rothholz, 2006). According to Weidman-Evans and Mohundro (ND), pharmacists were already recognized to be able to assist in the areas of immunization education, distribution, administration, and tracking systems way back in 1993 by the Department of Health and Human Services in the United States (US). At present, pharmacists have the authority to administer vaccines in all 50 states of the US and the District of Columbia. The impact of this implementation was shown through the increase of vaccination rates (Steyer, Ragucci, Pearson & Mainous, 2004).
Mitral valve insufficiency Mitral valve insufficiency is a heart defect, when the mitral valve is unable to pump out the blood from the heart. Mitral insufficiency is the most common form of all valvular disorders. Every sixtieth patient with heart disease has mitral valve insufficiency. Usually people with insufficient mitral valve also develop the mitral narrowing, which is a narrowing process of the right atrioventricular orifice.
The FDA or Food and Drug Administration was created to protect the public's health, by making sure the safety and security in drugs and food is satisfactory. Since the founding of the FDA till present time, the organization has failed to uphold its core mission policies and values to successfully protect the citizens of the United States. The FDA displays its mission objectives and policies clearly on its government website for the public’s perusal. According to the FDA’s own website, the mission statement reads: The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for protecting the public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, and medical devices;…