Each antianginal drugs can be classified into one or more drug classes. These drugs are used to manage angina by improving perfusion of the heart muscle and they also reduce the metabolic demands of the heart muscle. The two main groups of antianginal drugs are organic nitrates and calcium antagonists because they are vasodilators and improve heart muscle perfusion and reduce the metabolic demands of the heart muscle. There are three classes of drugs to treat angina and may be used to treat other conditions as determined by a
As people at present time become aware of blood pressure and its significance, ways of treating the complications associated with any disorder in regards to blood pressure, hypertension and hypotension, have been commonly known and mainly dependent on how a patient responses to his doctors directions, and weather the patient is precisely taking after what has been said to him. Doctors usually give either instructions or prescriptions in order to help their patient be treated; right after recognizing his condition and identifying causes that lead to take it in by diagnosing. To begin, the first step towards the treatment of any disorder is to diagnose it and identify the cause. On one hand, as in hypotension, doctors will start diagnosing the
If you are a smoker with heart disease, it is best that you quit this habit. Another thing you could do is at least try to get 30 minutes of moderate exercise each day or get on a low fat and low sodium diet. Also, by eating lots of fruits and vegetables you can prevent it. Keep track of your blood level and if you have diabetes, make sure you keep it under control. On the other hand, limit the amount of alcohol you consume because that could raise your blood pressure.
meds2.JPG Dangerous Mix When a doctor prescribes medications to treat disease, he or she knows the patient 's weight, warns of side effects, and prescribes a specific dose and form of the drug. When an abuser buys the medication on the street, he or she knows none of this, and problems—sometimes lethal—can occur. Emergency room doctors see many patients who have taken the wrong dose of a prescription drug or mixed over-the-counter (OTC) medications or prescription drugs with alcohol or other drugs. Alcohol is especially dangerous when mixed with drugs. Alcohol slows the heart and respiratory system, and changes the way messages travel in the brain.
Module Three Question One Mr Collins, a 27-year-old male, is involved in a serious motor vehicle accident. He sustains severe trauma to his legs and large pools of blood are seen at his feet. His heart rate is 128 b.p.m. And his blood pressure was 80/55 mmHg. His breathing is laboured and his RR is 37/min.
Clonidine: Being used by Nick, who was diagnosed by ADHD two years ago. The medication was prescribed by his pediatrician, and has helped him to control his impulsive symptoms, and has showed improvement in his school as well. His second grade teacher referred Nick to school psychologist duo to his behavior in class. He was distracted in the class easily, and he had difficulty to finish his assignment, while he got into the verbal and physical fight with his peers. His teacher reported that he distracted the class, for instance, he started talking with his classmates, while they were listening to the book that the teacher was reading to them.
Mrs. Smith experiences symptoms of heart failure which seems to have been caused by her hypertension, which is poorly controlled, given the blood pressure of 158/98. Her symptoms relate to a reduction of cardiac output as evidenced by fatigue and weakness, depleting her cardiac reserve, and excess fluid retention from elevated end-diastolic pressure (dyspnea, exertional dyspnea, bibasilar crackles, peripheral edema, decreased saturation). The decreased cardiac output is evidenced in a HR of 92, and is possibly related to her memory loss as well. Her symptoms seem to be manifestations of left-sided heart dysfunction, given her complaints of fatigue and weakness. (Porth, 2015).
Indian Pharmacopeia 2010, Ghaziabad: Govt. of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, The Controller of Publication Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, 2010 vol- 1, 3, pp 382, 456, 1779-1780, 2287. 2. JB Park, JW Ha, HO Jung and MY Rhee, “Randomized Trial comparing the effects of a low-dose combination of Nifedipine GITS and Valsartan versus High dose Monotherapy on Central Hemodynamic in patient with inadequately controlled Hypertension: FOCUS Study” NCBI. 2014, 19(5), 294-301. 3.
• Therapeutic Classification: • Antihypertensive • Pharmacologic Classifications: • Calcium Channel Blocker • Mechanism of Action: • Inhibits the transport of calcium into myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in inhibition of excitation contraction coupling and frequent contraction. • Relates mechanism of action to pt diagnosis: • The patient has a history of CAD, which damages or disease in the hearts major blood vessels. So this medication is helping to excite a contraction. • Why
Even at slower infusion rates, however, the increase in mean arterial pressure over the first 10 minutes was shown to be in the range of 7%, with a decrease in heart rate between 16% and 18% . The initial response lasts for 5 to 10 minutes and is followed by a decrease in blood pressure of approximately 10% to 20% below baseline and a stabilization of the heart rate, also below baseline values; both of these effects are caused by the inhibition of the central sympathetic outflow overriding the direct stimulating effects . Another possible explanation for the subsequent heart rate decrease is the stimulation of the presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor, leading to a decreased norepinephrine
Cardiovascular agents and Dentistry It is inevitable that a dentist will encounter patients that have systemic problems. One of which will be cardiovascular complications . It is therefore important that a dentist understand these disease and know how to manage individual’s as related to the care that a dentist plans to render in relationship to the therapy protocol that their physicians have mandated.
The mean HDL-cholesterol increased noticeably by 10-13%. No significant difference was noted in response to whether the drug was given in one dose or two. When the dose is increased from 5 to 120 mg, the pharmacological activity increases in a linear
Prescription drug industry is an oligopolistic market where a few firms dominate the industry and entry into the market by new firms is generally considered highly unlikely. Entry barriers such as cost structure, pricing pressures, regulatory approval process, patent protection and legal restrictions form the primary sources that make it really hard on new entrants. Heavy spend in Sales, Marketing, R&D and Manufacturing required prescription drug firms to possess significant capital to survive. Patent protection gave these firms an opportunity to maintain monopoly for several years and remain profitable. Spend in R&D, early mover advantage and innovation ensured that the firms entering the industry could not replicate the chemical processes and manufacturing practices easily and cost effectively. Faster and more responsive supply chain also ensured that the firms retained significant competitive advantage.