Phonics In Language Reading

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Chapter Two
Literature Review: The term phonics during the 19th century and into the 1970s was used as a synonym of phonetics. The use of the term in reference to the method of teaching is dated to 1901. Phonics during from the Roman text the Doctrine of littera, which states that a letter ( litter ) consists of a sound ( protests ) , a written symbol (figure) and a name ( name ). This relation between word sound and form is the backbone of traditional. Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness--------- the ability to hear, identify, and ,manipulate phonemes ---in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that
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More specifically synthetic phonics is now the accepted method of teaching reading in the education systems in the UK and Australia.
Basic rules of phonics
Cognitive reading skills
Sub-lexical reading Sub- lexical reading involves teaching reading by associating characters or groups of groups of characters with sounds or by using phonics learning and teaching methodology. Sometimes argued to be in competition with whole language methods.
Lexical Reading Lexical reading involves acquiring words or phrases without attention to the characters or groups of characters that compose them or by using Whole language learning and teaching methodology . Sometimes argued to be in competition with phonics and synthetic phonics methods .
Alphabetic principle: English spelling is based on the alphabetic principle . In an alphabetic writing system , letters are used to represent speech sounds , or phonemes. For example , the word pat is spelled with three letters , p, a, and t , each representing a phoneme , respectively , / p / , / æ / , and
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As a result , the written form of English includes the spelling patterns of many languages ( Old English , Old Norse , Norman French , Classical Latin and Greek, as well as numerous modern language) superimposed upon one another. These overlapping spelling patterns mean that in many cases the same sound can be spelled differently and the same spelling can represent different sounds. However, the spelling patterns usually follow certain conventions. In addition, the Great Vowel shift, a historical linguistic process in which the quality of many vowels in English changed while the spelling remained as t was , greatly diminished the transparency of English spelling in relation to pronunciation. The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow rules. For example, the letters ee almost always represent /i□/but the sound can also be represented by the letters I and y. Similarly , the letter cluster ought represents /□,f / as in enough , / o□/ as in though , / u □ / as in through, □ f / as in cough , / a □ as in bough , /□□/ as in bought , and / □ p / as in hiccough , while in slough and ought , the pronunciation varies
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