Recent evidences shows the efficacy of intravenous pamidronate in the treatment of FD along with other measures to maintain the maximum bone density. Introduction Fibrous dysplasia is a rare developmental disorder which occurs as a result of replacement of normal bony tissue by fibro osseous connective tissue1. The underlying defect on the nuclear level is a mutation in GNAS12 gene which activates pathways to prevent the maturation of the osteoprogenitor cells hence leading to development of abnormal bone structure produced by
In many cases spinal instrumentation is used. Spinal instrumentation is a term used to describe the surgical attachment of artificial tools such as hooks, rods, and wires to redistribute stresses on the vertebrae and keep them stable and aligned. Surgeons have been developing surgical correction techniques on a large scale for approximately 100 years, and the use of screws has even been reported as early as the 1800’s (Klenerman, 2002), although these were more similar to the traditional screws used in carpentry at the time. Paul Harrington however, “is acknowledged to be the first to use implants for scoliosis correction and to support fusion”, (Hasler, 2013), in the form of a stainless-steel rod with a ratchet and collar end attached to the top and the bottom of the spinal curve, secured with hooks. The pedicle screw as we know it today was first developed and used in France in 1970 when Roy-Camile et al (Roy-Camille et al, 1976) reported the use of a screw device which “went down the pedicle and into the body of the vertebra, traversing all three columns of the spine” (Mulholland, 1994).
This joint lies beneath the talus, where the posterior calcaneal facet on the talus articulates with the posterior facet on the superior aspect of the calcaneus. The Subtalar joint is a gliding joint, with the 2 bones held together by an articular capsule and by anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, and interosseus talocalcaneal ligaments. Subtalar inversion and eversion occur at this articulation. (6) The relation of the tibia, fibula, and talus is maintained by an articular capsule and 3 groups of ligaments (medial, lateral, and syndesmosis).
Some of these bones later fuse together, so that the adult skeleton has 206 bones.) These bones give you : body structure and posture, lets you move in many ways, protects your internal organs, produces blood cells, stores our chemical energy, calcium storage and endocrine regulation. Bones in our body are living tissue. They have their own blood vessels and are made of living cells, which help them to grow and to repair themselves. As well, proteins, minerals and vitamins make up the bone.
Today’s prosthetics are lighter and more realistic looking, using rubber and plastic covers (Norton). Prosthetic limbs are now able to imitate realistic function easier, and perform physical activities (Norton; Baird). With the help of physical therapy, the users can run and even ski when using advanced prosthetic limbs. By focusing on reducing the friction and improving gait in a prosthetic, comfort of a patient is increased tremendously (Marshall). Newer and more intricate limbs are more comfortable and
Types of bone cells include osteoclasts. Osteoclasts break down tissue. Osteoblasts that build new tissue, and osteocytes which hold the bone together. The lining cells protect the bone. Cancellous Bone Cancellous Bone is spongy and has a higher surface area to mass ratio than cortical bone because
The design must not impede the collapsibility of the wheelchair. The goal of a wheelchair is to increase its user’s mobility. For ease of travel and storage, many manual wheelchairs have been designed to be able to fold or collapse, and implementing this feature is important in increasing portability of the chair. 6. Propulsion must be available for either side of the chair.
Joints are divided into different categories depending on the motion it allows the group of bones to do. While the cartilages, bones, and joints protect the internal body and allows the individual to move around comfortably, they are vulnerable to infections and diseases. Two of which are Paget’s Disease of bone and knee osteoarthritis. The structure of the body consists of multiple bodies of tissue, from cartilage, bones, and joints. Cartilage is a tissue composed of cells labeled as chondroblasts, chondrocytes and extracellular matrix.
Advances in sterile, germ free surgeries also improved the success rate of amputation procedures, increasing the need for prosthetic limbs. Before making the prosthetic limb they have to first measure the circumference and the diameter of the hand or leg the person is missing. They then make a mould with the same circumference and diameter as the
REVIEW OF LITRATURE ANATOMY OF KNEE JOINT The embryological development of knee joint occurs from the leg bud in the 4th week. The formation of femur, tibia and fibula occurs in the 6th week. The knee joint embryologically arises from blastemal cells with the formation of the patella, cruciate ligaments and meniscus in the 7th week.22 Knee joint is formed by two condylar joints between the femoral condyles (medial and lateral both) and the corresponding tibial condyles. Knee joint also has a gliding joint between the patella and the corresponding femur articular surface. The fibula is not involved directly in forming the articular surface of the knee joint.23 Figure 1: Knee joint.