Pyelonephritis Research Paper

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Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection of a causative agent such as bacteria called Escherichia coli (E. coli). Transmission is due to poor hygiene or an untreated urinary tract infection (UTI). A basic description of pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidneys due to an infection of the renal pelvis and is sometimes asymptomatic. This infection can destroy the structures of the kidney such as the loop of Henle, nephrons, and corpuscles all important for the kidney to concentrate urine. Antibiotics are used for treatment, however it depends on the causative agent. Surgery, dialysis, or nephrectomy may be considered for Chronic pyelonephritis.
Acute pyelonephritis: The systemic symptoms are fever, chills, back pain, and nausea and vomiting. …show more content…

The nephron is a tubular network that blood delivers fluid to. These nephrons are constantly filtering the blood from the waste products. When the filtrate is passing through, absorption and secretion convert the filtrate into the urine. However, in the case of pyelonephritis, the virus or bacteria (whether it is a UTI or hematogenous)invades the messes up the function in regard to physiology which changes the microenvironment at the site of infection. The fact that the kidney is infected can inflame the urinary tract, causing the ureters to contract involuntarily.
We now have one or both kidneys that are swollen can cause discomfort why is the function of the kidney important? Because their job is to filtrate the waste products out of the blood. However, those toxins build up which is what causes some of the symptoms of acute pyelonephritis such as vomiting, nausea, and fever. Pyelonephritis can also lead to sepsis, which is when the bacteria enter the bloodstream
A urinary tract infection is caused by bowel flora like E. coli, Enterobacter, and Proteus. Another possible outlet is hematogenous infection, meaning the infection was spread through the blood circulation due to bacteremia (bacteria found in the blood). Also, endocarditis which is an infection from the inner layer of the heart by causative agents: Staphylococcus and …show more content…

In obstructive Chronic Pyelonephritis, the kidney walls become thin and the scarring can be seen from the cortex to the medulla Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the failure of the vesicoureteral orifice that can be the result of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) increasing pressure on the bladder distorting the valve. This means that urine is able to move back into the kidney because of the failure of the vesicoureteral orifice valve. In a healthy kidney, the flow of urine descends from the kidney to the ureter into the bladder. The valve closes after urine flows into the bladder. However, in regard to pyelonephritis, the valve is distorted due to VUR allowing the flow of urine to ascend back into the ureter and the

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