Sea star are familiar along the shoreline where large numbers may aggregated on rocks. Sometime they cling so tenaciously that are difficult to dislodge without tearing off some tube feet. Star fish also lived on muddy or sandy bottoms and among coral reefs. They are often brightly colored and range in size from a centimetre in greatest diameter to about a meter across. Sea star has madreporite on aboral surface, they has sucker on the podia, the oral surface are against the substratum and the sea star also has the movement of anus to aboral
The Spine: Composed of 33 vertebrae, the spine consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral and 4 fused coccygeal vertebrae. The width of the vertebral bodies generally increases craniocaudally, except at T1-T3. The normal curve of spine includes: 1. Cervical lordosis (20-400) 2. Thoracic kyphosis (20-400), 3.
Nomenclature of intervertebral disc is such that it takes the name of the vertebra cephalad to it. The disc between L4 and 5 will be called L4 disc. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is present at the level of the intervertebral foramina and it is in the confines of the foramina. Three branches arise distal to the DRG- Ventral ramus, Dorsal ramus and sinuvertebral nerve. The ventral ramus is the most prominent and most important branch and it supplies the structures ventral to the neural canal.
Atlantic Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Introduction: The Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) is a pelagic and schooling fish that is also known as the northern bluefin tuna, giant bluefin tuna. The species is the largest member of the Scombridae family and one of the largest bony fishes. Bluefin tunas are known to swim long distances and usually at high speed of up to about 1.5 knots and can also dive as deep as about 900 meters. The average lifespan of bluefin tunas is 15-30 years with up to 50 years for very large specimens.
The convexed bulge is created by the presence of the middle ethmoidal air cells and as a result, it contains an ostium that drains this space. Located anteroinferiorly to the ethmoid bulla, and posterior to the uncinate process, is a curved furrow called the hiatus semilunaris. It contains the maxillary ostium and an accessory maxillary ostium towards the inferior aspect of the groove and the ostia of the anterior ethmoidal air cells anteriorly. This groove is continuous with the ethmoidal infundibulum, which courses superiorly and deep to the anterior aspect of the middle concha and lateral to the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone. The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum.
Cephalopoda Introduction: Invertebrate animals which belong to mollusks which means “head foot” and characterized by large head and modified feet. This group includes octopuses, squid, cuttlefish and nautiluses. Members of cephalopods are characterized by their ability to quick change their color as well as changing the texture and shape of their bodies as a means of camouflage. Today there are about 800 living marine species of cephalopods which are found in all of the world’s oceans, from the tropics to the near freezing water at the poles.
rectus abdominis) is a thin strap-like muscle, enclosed between two sheets of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, and separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. The muscle originates from the lateral border of the sternum, including the xiphoid process; also the ventral surfaces of the 1st to 7th costal cartilages. Its insertion lies at the anterior end of the pubic symphysis (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) which originates from 7 posterior ribs, the middle layer of the lumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament.
Horseshoe crabs are marine living fossils, probably traced back to 485 million years ago. There are two horseshoe crab species found in Hong Kong. Horseshoe crabs are an ancient marine chelicerates, identified as the Class Merostomata and Order Xiphosura. The animals are identified by the having appendages around their middle of the mouth and their swimming legs at their end of their body.
26.21 Pelvic girdle of Polypterus (A) and Lampanyctus (B) in ventral view Sarcopterygians – *The lobe-finned fishes were the first vertebrates to tend towards to venture on the land. *So, in them, the development of pelvic girdle becomes very important to support body weight in the transition from water to land. * In chonate fishes pelvic girdle (Fig. 26.22) consists of bilateral elements having a forward pubic process, a medial ischial process and a dorsolateral projecting iliac process.
The Giant Pacific Octopus flourishes in the Pacific Ocean. To be specific, it is most commonly found on the West coast of North America and the East Coast of Asia (Roumanis, 2015).The Benthic part of the ocean about 330 ft. deep is said to be where most live. Like many land animals, this Octopus finds or builds a den. Once a den is found, it will stay its home until it feels threatened or needs food (Kalupa, 2012).
There 's more to learn about this magnificent dinosaur and where it lived. The baryonyx ate fish like the Igdabatis,Anomoeodus,Aulolepis and etc. and also young Iguanodons. The baryonyx fossil had fossilised fish skeletons and Iguanodons fossil in it’s stomach and in it’s dung.
The leopard seal is considered the most ferocious seal in the antarctic. The leopard seal is the only seal species who will prey on its own kind as well as penguins, fish, krill, and squid. Elephant seals on the other hand only prey on fish and squid. To kill the penguins they will grab their feet and hit them against the ice until they are dead. The leopard seal
In addition to birds, plenty of fish can be found in the basin and fishermen frequent the basin in search of Tilapia (3). Tilapia can be found by the hundreds in the basin along with corvina and an occasional striped bass, mullet, croaker, or sargo (3). The endangered pupfish, though rare, also rely on the basin for survival (10). Pupfish are also the only native species in the Salton Sea, thriving in shallow bodies of water with a high salt and heat
In the world of bass fishing there are many baits that are used to catch bass, but the ones in this paper are just some common ones used. Carolina rig is a deep-water assembly that uses a heavy slip sinker, plastic bead, barrel swivel, 16-to 18-inch leader, hook, and soft-plastic