This theory is concerned with how individuals learn large amounts of meaningful material from verbal/textual presentations in a school setting in contrast to theories developed in the context of laboratory experiments. According to Ausubel, learning is based upon the kinds of super ordinate, representational, and combinatorial processes that occur during the reception of information. He also explains that new learning or acquisition of knowledge is related to relevant ideas in the existing cognitive structure. Cognitive structures represent the residue of all learning experiences; forgetting occurs because certain details get integrated and lose their individual identity. Constructivist Learning Theory.
Equilibration Equilibration is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next (John W, 2011). Equilibration is a balance between assimilation and accommodation while disequilibrium is a situation where the imbalance between assimilation and accommodation, equilibration can make someone brings together the experience beyond the inner structure. Another notable constructivist is Vygotsky. Vygotsky's work is based on two main ideas. First, intellectual development can be understood only when viewed from a historical and cultural context of the child's experience.
He also states that during the process of growth and change, training is the easy part of effective professional development. Jacob Kounin turned his attention on a study of the practical problem of classroom management, from the standpoint of technology. But Fred Jones talks about tools for teaching implements response to intervention where it is a multi-level system that focuses on the prevention of learning problems. It is designed to develop capacity for identifying, adapting and sustaining effective instructional practices. Dr. Jones has developed methods of classroom management that are both powerful and affordable for all teachers.
This coincides with Dewey‘s view that teaching towards explicit, externally imposed goals confines educational experience. This is due to the fact that, it results in a parting between the learning activity itself and the result of the activity. In his interpretation, effective education is grounded upon dynamic goals which emerge, in sequence, from an activity. An illustration of the latter can be provided through demonstrating how, within a cautiously documented project approach to early childhood teaching, educators can pinpoint possible aims and then support children in identifying and realising the objectives set for themselves, Glassman and Whaley
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
Contrary to this, in Kohn’s view, behaviourist teaching is seen as a ‘controlling’ technique and as a way to increase learning performance. In this instance, however, it is a management technique that contributes to the implementation of other theories such as social-constructivism and cognitivism, discussed further
At this point, you might worry what if the students were not able to solve problems by their own. As it was mentioned above, Montessori materials are designed to facilitate students to correct mistake independently. Moreover, Montessori teachers would guide the students toward the established goals. Such tool is an application of scaffolding from Vygotsky (Driscoll, 2005, P. 257), which describes that instructors provide supports for the learner to construct
Discuss the development of learning theories from behaviorism to humanism. Choose one of the learning theories that you are drawn to and discuss the reasons for you choice. Introduction Learning theory is the process of how is the information been engaged, practice and grow during learning. Learning is defined as the alteration in behavior, in other words, learning is approached as an outcome from the end of some process of the product. Educators who hold the cognitive theory accept as true that the definition is a change of behavior is too constricted.
Students should have a contextually meaningful experience. The goal of constructivist learning is self-sufficiency, shared exchange of social relations and empowerment. The principle of constructivism is reflected in Confucius’s proverb where he says that hearing alone leads to forgetting, seeing may help remember but only by doing will one understand. Constructivism promotes advanced and refined thinking. Constructivism is against the banking of knowledge in which children are banks where coins of knowledge are put in and expected to be returned the same way.