In research done by by Kelley and Kohnert (2012), 8-13 year-old Spanish-speaking ELL students were tested on their recognition and production of English vocabulary to provide evidence of a cognate advantage for Spanish-speakers. The study tested 30 typically developing children who spoke Spanish at home and English at school. The researchers used two vocabulary measures in the study. The first, PPVT III, measured students’ recognition of spoken vocabulary words (their receptive vocabulary) by asking students to choose one of four pictures that corresponded to a spoken vocabulary word. The second, EOWPVT, measured their production of a vocabulary word from a given picture (their expressive vocabulary). Spanish/English translations of each vocabulary …show more content…
Questions were ranked as easy, medium, and hard based on the order in which they were administered (both the tests that were used order questions by difficulty) and adjusted this by how many questions individual participants ended up answering (these tests had ceilings, so after a certain number of wrong answers in a row, the test would terminate). Researchers found that all levels of difficulty showed more correct answers for cognates, but that the medium and hard words showed the largest cognate advantage. This supports that there is a cognate advantage for Spanish-speaking ELL students and that it can be particularly useful with more difficult English vocabulary questions. However, only 60% of students on the PPVT III and 83% on the EOWPVT exhibited this advantage, indicating that it does not appear uniformly in all Spanish-speaking ELL …show more content…
This limits the researchers’ ability to look at the gap between ELL and non-ELL vocabulary and the role cognates can play in closing it. The use of the PPVT III, which has been shown in another report by Mott Baker, Ball, Keck and Lenhart (1995) to produce lower scores in Hispanic children than in non-Hispanic white children, I believe would complicate this, as results could not easily be compared reliably due to the racial and ethnic performance gap. Kelly and Kohnert do not acknowledge this limitation in their study because when comparing among Hispanic students, it does not create a gap. However, should this test be used to compare with a non-Hispanic control group, it could result in flawed findings. Despite this comparative limitation, the study is well controlled and accounts for many variables. The ranking of the questions on difficulty, as well as a concrete method of identifying cognates by their sound provided for an interesting and reliable data analysis. The authors claimed the students in their study had received no explicit cognate instruction, however did not provide any basis for how they could have known this, as the students could have received this type of instruction in previous grades before this study took place. This is an extremely important factor in discussing the cognate advantage and the authors should
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In her article, “Teach Them Spanish Early, Too,” Carlene Carmichael questions why young Californians are not being taught a basic understanding of both the English and the Spanish language. Carmichael contends that more job opportunities are available to bilingual applicants. She suggest that children could be taught both languages together from a young age. Carmichael pities the many Americans who are barred from employment at bilingual businesses because of this disadvantage and she wonders if anyone else feels the same. Carmichael’s suggestion to offer Spanish curriculum to young children and teach both English and Spanish at the same time makes a lot of sense; After all, California does recognize both English and Spanish as official
In “Teach Them Spanish Early, Too”, Carlene Carmichael argues that a second language should be offered to Americans. Carmichael seeks equality for everyone and she wants the same opportunities of also being taught a second language. Children are learning English so other children should be taught Spanish. In addition, Carlene Carmichael states that she feels sorry that many Americans that are applying to jobs are at a disadvantage because they cannot speak Spanish. I agree with some of Carlene Carmichael’s arguments, but many qualifications listed do not require Spanish, the applicants just need to have experience working.
Se Habla Espanol is an essay by Tanya Maria Barrientos, whom discusses her struggles with learning her native language as an adult after years of discrimination for the color of her skin, regardless of being raised in America. Initially when I read the essay, I believed that it could only apply to Latino women, due to it being published in a magazine directed towards Latino women, but before I finished reading the passage I realized that her story could apply to anyone struggling to learn their native tongue or a language in general. So I quickly discovered that you can’t judge a passage by the periodical it’s published in. Her social development and sense of belonging were greatly influenced by the way she perceived stereotypes against her
In the essay, "Aria: Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood", Richard Rodriguez explains his opinion on bilingual education based on his own childhood experience. He provides reasons why it would be retrogressive to permit the non-English speaking children use their family language as the language in school. In defending his positions, he provides three ideas to support his position: • The use of family language impedes child’s social growth. Insistence on using Spanish language at home made Rodriguez and his older sister and brother to be socially disadvantaged at school.
How the mexicans became a colony is Spanish Conquistadores,led by Hernan Cortes,allied themselves with Tlaxcalan tribes to conquer the Aztecs,who were the most important civilization in Mexico at the time. With the aid of these tribes, plus the effects of smallpox disease that killed many of the native inhabitants, that finally conquered the lands now named as Mexico at the Fall of Tenochtitlan (capital city of the Aztecs) on August 13, 1521. Since that day, until September 27,1821 Mexico became a colony of spain. In the early 19th century, Napoleon’s occupation of Spain led to the outbreak of revolts all across Spanish American.
Socioeconomic obstacles impede the academic achievement of students. “Hispanics have poverty rates that are two to nearly three times higher than whites; and 40 percent of their population is foreign born” (“Hispanics: Special Education and English Language Learners”). Living in poverty affects educational attainment. There is a gap in the educational outcomes because of socioeconomic status (SES). Moreover, the American Psychological Association (APA) states, “large gaps remain when minority education attainment is compared to that of Caucasian Americans”.
Rodriguez would speak English in school because to him it was a “public language”, while Spanish was a “private language” (72). Rodriguez
However, in order for one to truly understand the arguments made by the authors they must also understand the context behind these arguments; therefore, knowing how the individual authors’ definition of bilingualism lets the reader truly absorb what points they’re trying to make and why. In Espada’s essay, he defines bilingualism as a way for a person to remain in contact with their different cultural identities. There are many areas in the essay where the reader could interpret this definition from. However, the most significant piece of evidence appears at the beginning of the essay where Espada mentions his friend Jack Agueros’ analogy to describe his bilingualism “English and Spanish are like two dogs I love. English is an obedient dog.
It is true that Mexicans and Spaniards share similarities concerning language and culture, but there are far too many regional variations that make linguists say that Mexican Spanish qualifies to be a separate language, nonetheless, what does differ is that Spain’s political system is a Democratic government with an ‘international’ currency. Additionally, one can find a lot of Spanish influence in Mexican culture such as bull fights, foods like Spanish rice, and yes, Catholic Religion. Yet, it is easy to see the ancestral differences between Mexican and Spanish people due to their many different historical characteristics. Today, one difference between the two is that the Mexican political system is a close copy of the US system—at least on paper. However, the Mexican constitution provides only for a Federal system, unlike in Spain who recently has a revolution less than fifty years ago.
The similarities and differences of both the Spanish and Englishes triumphs and defeats in the new world are the basis of multiple things. They both had their failures and success , either in the beginning , end or in both, the basis of what the Spanish and English both tried to fullfill was something they either wanted or needed. First, the biggest similarity in the Spanish s success alike the Englishes was their discovers, they both had men who adventures for new land, profit and alliances. England had John Smith who went to venture and came to Jamestown. While the Spanish had conquistadors such as , Cortes who made an alliance with the aztecs or Balboa who explored the pacific ocean.
I'm sorry for not writing this in Spanish but I think I can only express this in English. I would like to first start with an apology on behalf of the rest of the students in AP Spanish for the appalling behavior they have shown. Bombarding you with emails is unacceptable and should never be the solution to a bad grade. Personally, I believe the grades you gave me on the culture comparison is fairly justified and the only thing I will do in the face of an 80% is try to do better next time.
The United States is a place of freedom. We are a mixing pot that unifies as one. Many religions, cultures, and languages make their home in the Unites States. Many foreigners see the U.S. as an opportunity to seek better lives and education, but when it comes to foreigners and native-born non-English speakers that do not yet know English, it becomes a little more difficult to go about an average day let alone make a better future. Children in school often become English Language Learners, or ELL, to assimilate to the American standards.
Language ideology, boundary, communities, and linguistic code mixing/switching, heteroglossia and transidiomatic are ways in which people define their linguistic identities and sense of belonging, engage in stratified power-driven relationships, and attitude towards language use. Mendoza (2008) situate her linguistic ethnographic study in a community of Latina teenager school, to examine their linguistic identities and how they are shaped by their language attitude and ideology, and the affect of that on educational practices. Latina girls from different categories such as European-Mexican, Rural-Mexican and American-Mexican/Jocks, are interacting and reflecting boundary demarcating and language ideology and attitude through their daily lives at the school. Urciuoli (1990) presents a case study of Puerto Ricans speech community in NYC, in which linguistic boundaries are at some situation clearly defined, and at other blurred depending on the ethnicity, socioeconomic class, gender and race affinities, such as Puerto Ricans interaction with their black neighbors versus white outsiders. The result of that is reflected on “sense of language around relationships” and