(vi) Transfer the concentrate and any precipitate to a 250 ml conical flask using 5 ml concentrated HNO3. (vii) Add 10 ml concentrated H2SO4 and a few boiling chips or glass beads. Evaporate on a hot plate in a hood until dense white fumes of SO3 just appear. (viii) If solution does not clear, add another 10 ml concentrated HNO3 and repeat the evaporation to obtain fumes of SO3. Remove all HNO3 before continuing treatment.
Linoleic acid peroxidation was initiated by the addition of 4 mM FeSO4.7H2O, incubated for 60 min at 37oC and terminated by the addition of 2 mL of ice cold trichloroacetic acid (10% v/v). An amount of 1 mL of thiobarbituric acid (1% w/v in 50 mM NaOH) was added to 1 mL of the reaction mixture, followed by heating at 95oC for 60 min. The reaction sample was read at 532 nm.7 The percentage of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition activity was calculated using the following equation: % Inhibition = [(AB - AA)/AB] x 100, where AB, absorption of blank sample, AA, absorption of test sample. 2.5.4. Metal chelating activity Briefly, 2 mM FeCl2 was added to different concentrations of test sample and reaction was initiated by the addition of 5 mM ferrozine.
Microcalorimetry experiment was performed on Setaram−C80 heat flow calorimeter coupled to a multiport high-vacuum homemade glass manifold. A specific amount of the sample (approx. 500 mg) was taken into a sample cell, reference cell was taken as empty and together they are connected with Pyrex tee. The sample was heated from room temperature to 200°C under vacuum and kept for 2 h, then 3-4 doses of helium gas were introduced into the system to remove any excess residue such as moisture or organic impurity from the system. The system was heated for 4-5 hr under vacuum at 200°C and then cooled down to the temperature (50°C) where we want to perform the adsorption study.
2.4. Electrolytic properties of anhydrous KMgCl3 To investigate the electrolytic properties of anhydrous KMgCl3, we prepared magnesium metal from anhydrous KMgCl3 by electrochemical method. The electrolytic properties were reflected by various parameters in the electrolytic process. Electrolysis cell: graphite crucible (Ø 65 mm×140 mm); cathode: steel rod (d=6 mm); anode: spectrally pure graphite rod (d=6 mm); electrolytic temperature: 700 oC; electrolyte: KCl-KMgCl3-NaCl-CaCl2 (15:32:38:15 wt.%); electrolytic time: 4 h; inter-electrode distance: 4 cm; cathodic current density: 0.50
Ensure that solid is completely dissolved using a stirring rod. Next, a 10 mL beaker is filled with 3 mL of HCl and measure 10 mL of ionized water into a 140 mL beaker. Carefully turn on laboratory burner and start cleaning the Nichrome wire by dipping it into concentrated HCl acid. Hold the Nichrome wire on top of the flame and repeat the step until the wire doesn 't show any color. When the wire is clean, dip the wire again with some of the acid and dip it into the solution with the unknown compound in it.
The peel powder was soaked overnight (or for desired period) at room temperature (30-32°C) for extraction with intermittent shaking. After extraction, it was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min and filtered through Whatman No. 2 filter paper. The effective volume obtained after centrifugation was noted. 2.3 Determination of radical scavenging activity (RSA) Determination of RSA was carried out according to Murthy, Jayaprakasha, & Singh (2002) using DPPH as stable free radical and butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) as standard.
One millilitreer of the lichen extract (1 mg/mL) in a volumetric flask was diluted with distilled water (46 mL), and the content was mixed in a volumetric flask after adding. oOne millilitreer of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was added and the content of the flask was mixed. thoroughly . After 3 min, 3 mL of 2% sodium carbonate (2 %) was added and then was allowed to standleft for 2 h with intermittent shaking. The reaction absorbance of prepared mixture absorbance was measured at 760 nm in a spectrophotometer (Jenway UK).
Figure (3): Graph results from poly math. Pressure Drop Calculation: Use Ergun Equation: dy/dW= (-α)/2y. (F_T/F_To ). (T/T_o ) = (-α(1+εX))/2y. (T/T_o ) Let, Pressure = P= kpa Φ= Void fraction= porosity= 0.445 g_c=1 (kg.m)/(s.N) D_p=Diameterofparticleinbed(m)=0.0047 m viscosity of mixture of gas in Catalyst bed is calculated by Champman-Enskog theory: µ=(-10.035+0.25191T-0.00037932T^2 )x3.6x〖10〗^(-4)=0.033 kg/(m.s) superficial velocity=u=volumitric flow rate/Ac=v_0/A_c =(0.34/14.20)/(π/4 (1.95)^2 )=0.023/2.99=0.0076 m/hr gas density with assumption of ideal gas= ρ_o=PM/RT=(1.5)(34.08)/(0.008314)(433) =14.20 kg/m^3 Volumetric flow rate=v=v_o (1+εX)(T/T_o )=0.023 (1-0.70)(438/433)=0.0069 m^3/s gas density=ρ=ρ_o (v/v_o )=14.20(0.023/0.0069)=47.3 kg/m^3 superficial mass velocity=G=(ρ.v)/A_c =(47.3)(0.0069)/2.99=0.11 kg/(m^2.s) β_o= -(G/(ρ.g_c.D_o ))((1-Φ)/Φ^3 )((150(1-Φ)μ/D_0 )+1.75G) β_o=(0.11/(14.20)(0.0047) )((1-0.445)/〖0.445〗^3 )(((150)(1-0.445)(0.033)/0.0047)+(1.75)(0.11))=6068.8 N/m^3 a= (2β_o)/(A_c ρ_c D_p (1-Φ) P_0 )=(2)(6068.8)/(0.023)(1900)(0.0047)(1-0.445)(150) =885.32 〖kg〗^(-1) dy/dW=(-.67(1-0.7))/2y (438/433) dy/dW=134.3/y dy=0.10/y(234.95) ∫▒ydy=0.57 y^2/2=0.57
Add 75 Ml Conc.HNO3 and heat the flask on a boiling water bath. On heating the flask sugar dissolves in nitric acid and copious evolution of nitrous fumes comes out. Discontinue heating. The reaction subsides in about 20 minutes. Pour the hot solution into a porcelain dish, wash the flask with 15 mL of nitric acid and evaporate the acid solution on a water bath
Characterization of bacteriocins 6.1. Effect of temperature The effect of temperature on bacteriocin stability was determined by exposing 5 ml aliquots of CFS at 40C, Room temperature, 370C, 630C and 1000C for 30 minutes. Agar well diffusion method was performed to determine the residual activity in the heat-treated CFS17. 6.2. Effect of pH To check the pH stability of the bacteriocins, 5 ml aliquots of CFS was taken in sterile tubes and were adjusted to pH values of 2, 4, 7 and 9 busing 1N HCl or 1 N NaOH.