Before the white settlers arrived, the Native Americans were the only people living in North America. They never had to worry about not having enough land, and each individual group had own territories. However, once the white settlers colonised, they sought out Indian lands and, with force, got what they desired. The land removal acts enacted by the white settlers in demand for land was the root cause of change in Native American Indian lifestyle, culture, and freedom.
In Canada, the first wave of feminism began in the late 19th and early 20th century. It was led by middle and upper class women, mostly by wealthy white women. Before this time, women were not seen as people under the law. They were legally barred from homesteading, and were forced to leave the farm if their husbands died. Until 1945, women were also unable to seek divorce, though men could in the case of adultery.
A key element in the assimilation policy was the lack of citizenship for Aboriginal people. It took a referendum in 1967 for Aboriginal people to be finally recognised as a citizen of Australia. To be a citizen, a right that all White Australians had since birth, Aboriginal people had to apply for a certificate and cut all ties to their Aboriginal culture including family. To have the right to vote, move without restrictions, buy alcohol or making any decisions about their lives for themselves they had to have a certificate often regarded as a “dog collar” but had to deny their indigenous heritage. The government saw the certificates as a way to promote assimilation to the Aboriginal people however it did nit work as 14 000 Aboriginals were living in New South Wales at the time and only 1500 certificates were handed out.
The meant set up farms let indigenous people work on it and survive off the produce. In other words changing the way Aboriginal people lived and trying to make them adopt white culture. However indigenous people could not get used to this life because they were traditionally nomadic and could not let go of their cultural ways. In 1911 the Board of Protection was given control over indigenous people, this meant that they were also the legal guardians of all Aboriginal children. The government believed that the best way to ensure all indigenous children were assimilated ( drops all customs and traditions and adopts dominant culture) into European society was to take them away from their families even if it meant taking them by force.
Pauline Johnson, is more about representing Native women and giving a realistic characterization to Native women in literature. A Red Girl’s Reasoning is a direct response and criticism of the “Winona” character that flooded literature in the nineteenth century. Christine is the complete opposite of a “Winona” character; she isn’t the mindless, over-emotional, dishonest, and deceitful woman that other portrayals of Native women were. She stayed true to her cultural beliefs while still compromising with Charlie to make their marriage work.
This is when the Dawes rolls were enacted, making members claim only one tribe as their heritage, meaning that if a person was one fourth Cherokee and one fourth Choctaw they had to choose only one to register as (“Dawes Commission”). Many people did not even sign the Dawes Rolls for fear of further Indian
The Europeans compelled the Indigenous children to live as ‘white people,’ ‘Told us all the white men’s way,’ this can be assumed that ‘white colonists’ wanted to eliminate all Aboriginal culture and forced to make them to live as Europeans and take away their lands as it was considered as ‘Terra Nullius’ (no man’s land) as they did to their rights, ‘Like the promises they did not keep, how they fenced us in like sheep.’ This implies that they were not humans to the First Settlers but rather as flora and fauna. Certainly, this was an issue as the Indigenous culture and spirituality were intertwined as one with their land. According to Creative Spirits (2017) in 1997, all Indigenous lives took a great turn and was granted all Aboriginal children that were taken away to be released, their freedom was finally granted. Some children found their families, others returned to their lands, as expressed in the lyrical poem, ‘One sweet day, all the children came back,’ this supports the idea that, ‘Acting black, yet feeling white,’ was what the indigenous children really felt fervently deep down.
Many people were killed. Women molested if they didn’t behave. Native women and children watch in terror unknowing if their husbands or fathers will be killed in Acton or be some of the few to survive .some of this is out of greed. Hats only some of what the Wild West is
Women have not always been as respected in society as they are now. In early America, women were banned from participating in most parts of society and their lives were mainly controlled by their fathers and husbands. While the women’s rights movement can be tracked as far back as 1850 is wasn’t until the early 1960s that the movement focused primarily on social inequality. (“Women’s Rights”, March 25 2013) This movement, also known as the Women’s Liberation Movement “aimed to dismantle traditional attitudes towards sexuality, family and reproductive rights, while also raising awareness of sexual harassment and violence.
Chief Justice Marshall concluded that Indian tribes were to be considered domestic dependent nations that relied on the federal United States government. In the same case Marshall established a trust responsibility that the government had to the Natives, it’s can be compared to a parent to child relationship. Marshall also ruled on the Johnson v. McIntosh Supreme Court case in 1823 that regarded the right to occupancy. The case referred to a land issue between two white men who bought the same land, one from the Native Americans and the other from a grant through the federal government.
In order to control even more the natives, another Indian Appropriation Act was passed in 1871. It said that Indian tribes were no longer seen as an indepedent nation but that all Indians were just individuals, like everyone. But also that they were "wards" of the federal government. This obviously made the natives less powerful, because as a tribe, they were numerous so they had more power and they could have treaties with the government. But with the act, it did not work anymore.
Which proved for their security and steps to take against trespassers on their land, the enforcement of these laws was nowhere to be found. The lack of enforcement of these laws was seen as silent consent that it was indeed ok to take the lands from the Cherokee people. Ross wrote to John C. Calhoun in 1822, “Brother, we have repeatedly complained to your Government of the injuries done to our nation by our white Brethren of the frontier states, in direct violation of the good faith solemnly pledged by your Government. There appears to be a great relaxation in enforcing those obligations.
This treaty which was signed as a show of friendship between the two races, and would pose to haunt the Duwamish people in the coming years. This was a key event to the downfall of the Duwamish tribe and it’s implications are discussed below. The first implication that will be examined is the fact that the treaty had promised the Duwamish people that they would receive a reservation from the United States government, which was not fulfilled. The Duwamish people, like other Native tribes, had lived on the same land for generations.
Before the Europeans began arriving in North America to expand, the Natives had already established self governing tribes. In the map of Native Cultures in North America from the year 600 to 1500, it is evident that the groups functioned independently from each other. Although, several tribes lived close together, and because of this they shared many similarities but also faced conflicts between each other, due to the change in weather and the poor living conditions it caused. Tribes became weak, and with the “odd-looking strangers” who “frequently took away women and children never to be seen again” and carried plagues with them, leaders understood they must join together to become stronger against the Europeans (Miller). Rather than being