The CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc risk stratification method is used to direct the treatment of patients with AF by assessing a patient’s risk for stroke. CHADS2 assigns one point each for congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 or older, and diabetes, and two points for a previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Compared to CHADS2 score, CHA2DS2-VASc score includes three additional factors: vascular disease (prior MI, PAD or aortic plaque), age 65-74 years, and female gender. Each additional factor counts as one point, while an age 75 or older was upgraded to two points. The CHA2DS2-VASc score includes categories of 0 (low risk), 1 (intermediate risk), and 2 or more (high risk).
A diagnosis of severe sepsis or sepsis shock has an increased risk of patient mortality, length of stay, and a higher probability of long-term disability (Cawcutt & Peters, 2014; Whittaker, et al. 2015). Septicemia has been ranked as the eleventh leading cause of death in the U.S. since 2008 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Acute post-operative endophthalmitis is the most common type, which is what is seen in our patient. Statistics show that between 0.072% and 0.13% of acute endophthalmitis is caused by cataract surgeries. On the other hand, endogenous endophthalmitis is quite uncommon – only 5 in 10,000 cases. Blood-borne organisms reaching the eye via the blood-ocular barrier are what cause the infection. It is mostly seen in patients who already have complications with their immune systems, such as drug users, alcoholics, patients undergoing chemotherapy or have had an organ transplant, and patients with diseases like AIDS or diabetes,
The Stages of Emphysema According to the World Health Organization (Who), “more than three million people died of [Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease]COPD in 2012, which is equal to 6% of all deaths globally that year.” Emphysema is one of the common type of COPD, additionally, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,”number of adults who have ever been diagnosed with emphysema ]is about] 3.4 million.” Emphysema develops slowly over the years, as a result, the doctors describe the progression of emphysema by using staging systems ,or the Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (Gold) which created by group called the Global Initiative. Most specialists recognize that emphysema has four stages of development. These is no test can give an accurate predict for what would happen during the stages to any individual patient who has emphysema. As a result, emphysema is different from one patient to another. This essay will identify the four stages of emphysema.
Nondipping blood pressure is a common manifestation associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, chronic kidney function and coronary artery disease which may have an impact on all-cause mortality results, since these comorbidities are more prevalent in nondipping patients. In addition patients with isolated nocturnal hypertension, which is characterized as elevated blood pressure at night with normal daytime blood pressure, have a higher risk of total mortality and all cardiovascular events including fatal and nonfatal stroke, fatal and nonfatal acute MI, death from ischemic heart diseases, fatal and nonfatal heart failure and cases of surgical and percutaneous coronary revascularization. It’s important to note that those more likely to have isolated nocturnal hypertension tended to be of older age and had comorbities such as diabetes or a history of cardiovascular disease, which can contribute to the worsened outcomes.
Congestive Heart Failure Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (ADHF) is a clinical syndrome of worsening signs or symptoms of heart failure requiring hospitalization or other unscheduled medical care (Felker 2014). ADHF formerly known as congestive heart failure is one of the leading cause for hospitalizations in the United States. ADHF accounts for approximately 1 million hospitalizations per year in the United States (Arnold & Porepa 2012). According to the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry, patients hospitalized with ADHF have a substantial risk of in-hospital mortality and rehospitalization. Pathophysiology Patients with existing heart disease are at higher risk of ADHF, causing dyspnea, edema, and fatigue, which can lead
Communication is an important factor in determining patient outcomes, patient experiences, and healthcare costs, both positively and negatively. In fact, communication breakdown accounts for two thirds of sentinel events, the most serious of errors reported to the Joint Commission, making it the leading cause of medical errors (Starmer et al., 2014). The Institute of Medicine (1999) conservatively estimates that between 44,000 and 98,000 patients die each year from medical errors. More recent estimates predicted this number to be upwards of 400,000 deaths annually, making medical errors the third leading cause of death in the United States (Makary & Daniel, 2016). Miscommunication and handoff errors are the primary point these errors occur.
Also African Americans, Native Americans, and Alaskan Natives all are at higher risk than other races. Lastly your risk of stroke is much higher if someone in your immediate family such as a parent or sibling has a history of stroke. According to the American Stroke Association, blood clots are the most common cause of transient ischemic attacks. Also blood clots can be a result of atherosclerosis which is hardening of the arteries, a heart attack, or abnormal heart rhythms. This blood clot can block the blood flow that goes to your brain and within seconds your brain cells are affected by this blockage.
To conclude, it is an accepted fact that ventilator-associated pneumonia is a prevalent factor in patients in the ICU. Considering its high mortality rates due to the infection by multi-drug resistant pathogens, it is necessary that the attending physicians are made aware of the serious consequences and trained in effective therapeutic interventions as well as preventive care in and out of the ICU. Works Cited Chastre, Jean, et al. “Comparison of the 7 vs 15 days of Antibiotic Therapy for Ventilator Associated Pneumonia in Adults: A Randomized Trial.” JAMA (2011): 2588-2598 Koenig, Steven, M and Jonathon D Truwit. “Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.” Clinical Microbiology Reviews (2012): 637-657.
Opioid therapy was used in three patients (14%). The complications observed in this group were a recurrence of the disc herniation after 18 months requiring surgical treatment in one patient, a seroma that resolved spontaneously with complete recovery in one patient, and a dural tear that resolved with conservative treatment prolonging hospital stay to 48 hours in one patient. When comparing Group 1 (OD) with Group 2 (MED), the only statistically significant differences found were for the following variables: the size of the incision, length of hospi- tal stay, operative time, and immediate postoperative pain at the incision. The two former variables were greater in the OD group (P 0.01 and P 0.05, respectively), and the latter two were greater in the MED group (P 0.01 in both) (Tables 1 and 3). The VAS score (Fig.
Alzheimer 's Disease and its History, Symptoms, and Treatments Alzheimer’s is a form of dementia and is a progressive mental deterioration that can occur in middle or old age. It is the most common cause of a cognitive loss (Glicksman). In the United States, more than five million people are currently living with Alzheimer’s disease (Marsa). Some cases can be mild due to a later development in life. Because the disease develops later in life a patient will die before symptoms become severe.
Raising the Awareness of Medication Errors Introduction Medication errors are the 3rd leading cause of death in the United States, ranked behind heart disease and cancer. 1.3 million people are injured each year because of medication errors (Melissa Conrad Stoppler, 2014). Four out of five adverse events take place in hospitals. An adverse event is “an injury caused directly by medical management rather than the underlying disease or condition of the patient” (Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, 2000). Medication errors can take place in hospitals, nursing homes, doctor offices, at home, or while receiving drugs from a pharmacy.
Two biological theories for the underlying cause of Major Depressive Disorder: Monoamine hypothesis versus the Neurotrophic theory Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) more commonly regarded to as Depression is the leading cause of years lived with a disability according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) (Reddy, 2010) and affects approximately 121 million people across the globe. According to the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV-TR, 2000) for a person to be diagnosed with MDD they must experience at least five of the nine listed symptoms. One of the symptoms had to be either a depressed mood, or if diagnosing children, an irritable mood; or a loss in interest in most daily activities. Some of