In this lab, the oxidation of a secondary alcohol was performed and analyzed. An environmentally friendly reagent, sodium hypochlorite, was used to oxidize the alcohol, and an IR spectrum was obtained in order to identify the starting compound and final product. The starting compound could have been one of four alcohols, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol, 3-heptanol, or 2-heptanol. Since these were the only four initial compounds, the ketone obtained at the end of the experiment could only be one of four products, cyclopentanone, cyclohexanone, 3-heptanone, or 2-heptanone. In order to retrieve one of these ketones, first 1.75g of unknown D was obtained. 1mL of Acetic acid was then added to Unknown D and the solution was stirred. Next, 15mL of sodium
Mass is anything that takes up space. Mass is made up of small subatomic particles called atoms. Atoms have three main parts electrons, protons, and neutrons. The mass of the atom is found in the nucleus. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass cannot be created nor destroyed, and that the mass of the reactants will be equal to the mass of the products. This means that no matter what, the mass of the reactants when mixed together should be equal to their original masses. A chemical reaction changes one or more substances to be transformed into (a) new substance(s). A physical change is the change in somethings appearance. Chemical changes can be identified by its interaction with other substances.
Then five millilitres of sample “A” were placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. Each sample was visually observed and the colour of each was recorded. Next 20 drops of Benedict’s solution were added to each test tube and the test tubes were lowered into a hot bath at a temperature of approximately 80 degrees Celsius. All colour changes were recorded. Next, the test tubes were carefully cleaned with soap and water. Then five millilitres of sample “A” was placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. Then a few drops of each sample were placed on glucose/ketone paper. Each piece of glucose/ketone paper (with the sample on top) was compared to the label on the glucose paper bottle. The percentage of glucose was recorded for each sample. Next, the test tubes were carefully cleaned with soap and water. Then five millilitres of sample “A” was placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. 20 drops of Biuret reagent were then added to each test tube. The colour of each test tube was recorded and if proteins were present that was recorded for each test tube. Finally, the pH was recorded for each sample using pH
For the outside resource for my topic, I did a ride-along with the UW-Whitewater campus police officers. Through this process, I also used the department site as a source it should that they even have programs for drug awareness for students to go (University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, n.d.). Something that I had never known was that the school has a special program that if a student gets caught underage drinking or caught with drugs they can pay to go to a course instead of getting it on their permanent record that they were ever in trouble. The ride-along was from 8 to 12 and the time was separate between two different officers. For the first half, it was your basic ride-along we drive around and went on a couple of calls and worked
The drawback is that column chromatography is very time consuming; one way to combat this is to utilize flash chromatography, which involves a nitrogen pressure stream pushing the mobile phase through the column. The differences in polarity allow for the effective separation of the various components. The more polar compounds adhere to the polar silica or alumina stationary phase for a longer time. The less polar components elute first and then the polarity of the solvent is increased in order to elute the more polar compounds. Collecting small fractions is essential in column chromatography because they can be combined together; large fractions can lead to multiple compounds in a specific fraction. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate the three components of Excedrin using column chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to determine when each of the components had been fully eluted from the column. If there was an overlap in fractions between two components, liquid- liquid extraction was done to separate them. The compounds were characterized via NMR instrumentation and the percent recovery for each compound was calculated to determine whether the isolation was
In lab 3, fundamentals of chromatography, the purpose was to examine how components of mixtures can be separated by taking advantage of different in physical properties. A huge process in this lab was paper chromatography, which was used to isolate food dyes that are found in different drink mixes. The different chromatograms of FD&C dyes were compared to identify which dyes are present in each of the mixes. Chromatograms where made for the known FD&C and for the three Kool-Aid samples. The retention factor for each dye was calculated. F or each of the Kool-Aid flavors, 2.0 g was weighed out from the packet and 5mL of water was mixed in with them each. mL of 0.1% NaCl solution was added to 100mL of bottled water. The six chromatography strips
“In 1775, more than a million pounds of indigo was exported from South Carolina to England” (Indigo’s Political, Economic, Cultural History 1). This massive amount of dye being traded was due to many factors that made it nearly the perfect trade commodity. The process of indigo dye being made by slaves in South Carolina in the 1700s is shown very well in the book Someone Knows My Name by Lawrence Hill. The production of this indigo dye has an extensive history of being extremely arduous to produce naturally, but results in a compact substance that will last a long period of time and be very valuable.
When the distillation was proceeding at a moderate speed at about the wanted temperature, the receiver was replaced with a vial as the condensed vapour sample (V) and the thermometer was read. Half of the vial was filled with the sample.
A dye is a coloured substance that has an affinity, a bond with a physical surface, to the substrate to which it is being applied. Dyes are usually soluble in water. Dyes are used to change the perceived colour of an object. Dyes consist of 2 main parts: chromohore and auxochrome. Before 1856, all dyes were obtained from natural resources. The first synthetic dye, Mauveine, was accidentally discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856 while he was looking for a cure for malaria. Different dyes are made of different dye molecules. Dyes have colour because they absorb light in the visible spectrum (400–700 nm), have at least one chromophore, have a conjugated system (a structure with alternating double and single bonds), and exhibit resonance
The GC ethanol analysis method described above has a simple concept, its rapid, and extremely accurate, determining ethanol precisely without interference from other beverage components. With this method, it takes only 7 to 8 min to complete a sample analysis for the determination of ethanol content in a beverage sample. Analyst handling is minimized to prevent deviation in results or possible human error. This method requires a gas chromatograph and a digital integrator, both reasonably expensive and sophisticated pieces of equipment.
The term chromatography actually means colour writing, and signifies a technique by which the substance to be examined is placed in a vertical glass tube containing an adsorbent, the different segments of the substance traveling through the adsorbent at distinctive rates of velocity, according to their degree of attraction to it, and producing bands of colour at different levels of the adsorption column. The substances least absorbed emerge earliest; those more strongly absorbed emerge later. (Wixom et al., 2011)