Stress is an external factor that exerts a disadvantageous influence on the plant and is measured in relation to plant survival, crop yield and growth (biomass accumulation). The major abiotic stresses are drought, high salinity, cold and heat which reduce the survival, biomass production and yields of staple food crops up to 70% (Thakur et al. 2010). Drought is a major agricultural menace reducing crop productivity and limiting the successful realization of land potential throughout the world and improving yield under drought is a major goal of plant breeding. Drought tolerance is a quantitative trait, with complex phenotype and genetic control.
Soil erosion is a growing problem worldwide and has been taken its toll on the environment. Although soil seems insignificant to the population, it is a viable source that humans need to survive. Soil anchors all life on Earth by providing plants with the nutrients needed to stay alive. Not only does it play a key role in the design and sustainability of agricultural systems but it also affects future generations needs and production of crops as well (Higgit 1). Soil erosion affects the global community’s livelihoods through a variety of conditions.
Water logging refers to the saturation of soil with water, usually through irrigation, resulting in a condition under which most crop plants cannot grow. The productivity of agriculture land is also reduces by waterlogging. The drainage system is the main cause of waterlogging. When root is not able to respire due to the excess of water, the waterlogging takes place. The adverse effects of waterlogging are creation of anaerobic condition in the crop root-zone, growth of water loving wild plants, impossibility of tillage operations, accumulation of harmful salts, lowering of soil temperature, reduction in time of maturity.
Farmlands are increasingly being taken over by urban development's and an estimated 80% of the farmland will be lost in the future. CSA will benefit our environment as farmers will be growing the produce in a way that is beneficial for the soil, water, and practice sustainable farming. Farmers use organic or biodynamic methods to harvest their corps. Instead of using chemicals, they use natural fertilizers from animals to grow their vegetables. They practice and teach community members the necessity of our ecosystem and teach the shared responsibility of protecting our environment.
Because the soil does not retain as much water, it can be a problem for farmers living in drought-prone regions. From a cost perspective, tilling can be costly for farmers as large machines are required to plow and cultivate the soil. The environmental effects of tilling are also important to mention as the large machines, since they are run very often in intensive tilling practices, release emissions and dust into the atmosphere. ("Pros and Cons of No-Tillage Farming") The main reason why tilling is such an issue, however, is soil erosion ("Soil Cultivation and Tillage in Organic Agriculture"). Since farmers who use intensive tilling methods need to replace the
The use of fertilisers to sustain high- yield agriculture, which contains many different nutrients such as phosphorus, was observed. Phosphorus is an important nutrient that plants require for all the major developmental and reproduction processes. The level of phosphate that can be assimilated by plants is insignificant in nature and agricultural ecosystems, therefore when a fertilizer containing phosphate is applied in soils; it is swiftly immobilized due to microbial activity and fixation. Consequently, plants only use approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, contributing to water bodies being enriched with nutrients that cause eutrophication and toxic algal blooms (Correll, 1998).Current developments in the understanding of mechanisms in which species acclimate to low-phosphate
As we know sustainable farming is considered an improvement in the well-being of people in protecting and maintaining the capacity of the natural resource systems that provide the basis for these agricultural developments. Due to the growing populations throughout the world we come to face the demands for food involving livestock, alternative crops, labor, etc. that can affect the changes in consumption patterns for future generations. The concern with the development of sustainability is the practice and mechanisms for projects in less developing countries and understanding the constraints within theses projects to become successfully dependable. When designing livestock programs, we must focus on food security, environmental benefits, and
The effect on the economy: Market competition is limited and therefore famers have minimum control over farm prices, they continue to receive smaller portions from consumers. Economic pressures have lead to a loss of farms which contributes to the disintegration of rural communities and localised marketing systems. This makes it challenging for potential farmers to enter the business today. The effect on one’s health: Potential health hazards are tied to sub-therapeutic use of antibiotics in animal production, and pesticide and nitrate contamination of water and food. Farm workers are poisoned in fields, toxic residues are found on foods, and certain human and animal diseases have developed resistance to currently used
In order to avoid the 60-year fertile soil deadline that has been suggested, new land management and sustainable harvest practices are necessary. Limiting the sprawl of urban growth, utilizing porous surfaces that allow the drainage of water, employing low-impact tilling methods on farms, and re-establishing vegetation are all ways of reducing erosion, increasing nutrients, and strengthening biodiversity within ecosystems. Collaborative management of these practices can evenly distribute the fiscal burdens and the inherent beneficial outcomes on a global scale. It’s time to recognize that “soil” isn’t just “dirt” anymore. It carries much more weight, impacts literally every human being, and is not impervious to the pressure we place upon
Amid increased competition for land, climate change, and a rapidly growing population, Sustainable Intensification of agriculture is a key policy agenda for governments and private corporations alike (Garnett et al., 2013). One way of improving yield while preserving arable land and the wider ecosystem is using Conservation Agriculture (CA). CA encompasses a number of different conservation farming practices, but it is generally accepted that farming practices can be qualified as such if they embrace three core principles: 1) no ploughing / tillage, 2) rotation of crops along the year, and 3) a permanent natural soil cover (FAO, 2001). Moving to CA typically requires short term investments (e.g. training, new machineries) and delivers medium