Critique of clash of civilization WVLS 313 17-Apr-15 N .MKIZE 23684879 The theory of clash of civilization The clash of civilization is a theory by Samuel Huntington which states that peoples cultural and religion identities are the root source of conflict in the post-cold war. Clash of civilization is a theory referencing the clash of cultures ( Choeung.slide share).according to Huntington ( 1996,p84) “the most pervasive, important, and dangerous conflicts will not be between social classes, rich, poor, or other economically defined groups, but between peoples belonging to different cultural entities” . Huntington also states that conflicts between civilizations are likely to be caused by religious means. And this is to the fact that civilizations are distinguished from other culture through history, language, culture and most important religion (Huntington, 1993, 25). Huntington states that people’s culture and religion will be the main cause of conflict from onward.
Thus, Huntington emphasized that in understanding the world politics in the twenty first century is in the civilizations rather than the nation-states. In Huntington’s theory, he divines the world into seven or eight major civilizations which are Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American and possibly African civilization. Furthermore, as the civilization identity is basic thing in the life, the world will be shaped in large measure by the interactions among civilizations which could lead into a serious conflict. Also he stated the kin-country syndrome. The kin-country syndrome means
The emphasis shifted from God to man or more accurately, from the Church to man. The emerging perspective was bound to have great effect upon politics, society, and religion. This was assisted by the discovered of the printing machine, diminishing control of the Roman Church, and fascination with openness to free thinking. Once the strangle hold of the Catholic Church was broken, non-church based ideologies were able to take root. Balance is a difficult position to achieve; it is equally challenging to maintain.
In a similar fashion, what is emphasized here as Greene’s existential bias, may be regarded by some as religious bias. Religion is not simply a detached observation of rituals for its own sake. Rather it is a way of life. It always stands in need of existential verification in the lived life of man. On the other hand, through the dual need of handing it down, religion produces schools of thoughts and bodies of beliefs which lead in different directions from man’s concrete existence.
During the Medieval period, both society and the educational system centralized around religion, however, Christianity was clouded and political at times, plagued with bits of corruption. Furthermore, the common people of the Renaissance often resorted to extreme and unhealthy asceticism to atone for their sins with practices such as flagellation. Humanism strove to correct these fallacies through an emphasis on the individual and the study of Greek, philosophy, history, grammar, and translation of early Christian texts such as the Gospels. According to Petrarch, the proper task of human will is to be just, the proper task of human reason is to manage extreme emotions, and both contribute to the complete morality of an individual. The proper task of human will is to be just.
He further elaborates that the increasing interaction between seven or eight civilizations and their basic differences will be the reasons of clash. The increasing interaction intensifies civilization consciousness and awareness of differences between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations resulting the widening differences between civilizations and alliance within civilization (Huntington 23). He also adds, the revival of religion for fulfilling the gap of weakened nation state identity by the process of economic modernization and social change will also play the role. Furthermore, a west in the peak of its power confronts non-west that increasingly have the desire, the will and the resources to shape the world in non-western ways through Asianization, Hinduization and re-Islamization (Huntington 26). Huntington further explains, cultural characterises and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones.
Barbara Diefendorf's book, The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre is a window into the struggle of religion and secular power during the Protestant Reformation. Beyond the social elitism, mob mentality is an ever-present force that is ignited during the Religious Wars. Differences in religion are a contributor to factional tensions. Manipulation by religious leaders and misunderstanding between the two religious sects’ practices create this religious tension. Although Protestants and Catholics share the core teachings of Christianity, a struggle for secular power, feelings of tribalism, and conflicting religious ideals not only solidify the schism between these two sects of Christianity, but escalated these tensions to bloodshed.
Due to the reason that paper will examine the characteristics of a International Public Relations in different countries, case study approach was chosen as an research strategy. Case study approach is widely used in the organizaional studies and social sciences (Hartley, 1994.p.208; Hartley 2004.p.323). Some scholars claim that case studies became one of the most common way to conduct qualitative research (Stake, 2000).But at the same time it is professed as "they are neither new nor essentially qualitative" (p.435). A case study is in- debth examination of a particular single case such as a policy, programme, implementation process. Comparative case studies cover tqo or more cases in order ro generalize more knowledge about how or
Clash of Civilization in Middle East Ever since demise of ‘Communist threat’ in 1993, all scholars of the world are proliferating about future of the world. Among them ‘Samuel P. Huntington 's theory’ ‘Clash of Civilization’ is topic of debate in all over the world. According to this, “Conflicts of post-cold war era occur along cultural fault lines like region, ethnic groups and nationalities and religious group and divide civilization at two levels. First is micro level, in which countries try to hold their control in their territory. Second is macro level, in which countries compete for military power in order to promote their political and religious values.
Some of the prominent ones are Traditionalism vs. Science, Traditional vs. Critical theory, domestic vs. international, east vs. west, Orient vs. Occident, First World vs. Third World, developed vs. developing, core vs. periphery, North vs. South and others. While there have been numerous studies on dichotomies (Gusfield 1967; Keohane 1998; Tickner 1997; Mudimbe-Boyi 2002; Newell 2005; Eckl and Weber 2007), majority of writings critique dichotomies for the negligence of the complexities of world politics which it tends to generalise in simple dualistic levels of abstractions. However, it is to be noted that despite its serious fallacies, scholars uses dichotomies, knowingly or unknowingly, in some form or the other. Study on dichotomy has not been fair to dichotomies, in the sense that none of the studies so far has come up with even one virtue of dichotomy despite its habitual use. Studies on dichotomies begin with criticism and suggest an outright rejection of its use or at least suggest de-dichotomisation.