In deontology our duties, rules and obligation is according to God wishes. The deontological class of ethical theories states that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when engaged in decision making when ethics are in play. Its flaw is that there is no rationale or logical basis for deciding an individual’s duties. Teleological ethical theory or consequentiality: It states that if consequences are good the action is right and if they are bad the action is wrong. There are two categories in this theory: • Egoism as an ethical theory tells that mortality and self-interest is referred as egoism.
Do you know what an ethical and unethical behavior is? Ethical means everything that is related to the moral behavior of the human being and his posture in the social environment. Ethical is the adjective and ethics is the noun. Ethics studies the moral principles that guide humans’ conduct. Ethics has a lot to do with the individual’s choice, that choice can affect others in a good or bad way; we can also say that ethics is like a superior who will evaluate the choice made by the person.
(2004) also discussed about inherent morality. Inherent morality suggests a deep inner core, which is beyond our consciousness, as the most important source of our functioning. They also cited Kant in saying that morality is from pure rational principles embedded in the individual. In addition to this, they also showed the side of derived morality. Basically, this states that morality is externally produced and independent of a person’s origin or history.
Ross: categorised duties into prima facie duties and actual duties. Prima facie duties are those unconditional and binding obligations that appear as real duty while actual duty is a moral obligation that is real and binding. Other duties that Ross advocated are fidelity, justice, gratitude and beneficence. Virtues Theory This theory mitigates the limitations of both the teleological and deontological theories that focus on the consequences of an action and the rights of people respectively. Virtues theory emphasizes on character that determines the behaviour of a person.
Now that the definition and characteristics of law and ethics were identified, this other half of the paper will look into their similarities and differences and what causes the blurring or mixing of the two concepts. We will also determine whether law is shaped by ethics or vice versa and what are the consequences when laws violate ethical issues. Ethics and law are both concerned with what is right and wrong. George Annas, in his Relationship of Law and Ethics, distinguished the two by calling ethics as “the morality of aspiration” because it tells people what to do and to embody the ideals they strive to achieve while he called law as “the morality of duty” because it provides boundaries of actions. He also emphasized that ethical codes are usually generalities while laws are more specific.
There must be a categorical imperative that Kant states “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can concomitantly will that it should become a universal law.”. Kant claims his categorical imperative is the only principle of morality (the only categorical imperative), we are entitled to expect that it determine the principles of morality uniquely. Since, if it leaves multiple incompatible sets of maxims open (we will have no basis for choosing among them), then there being no other principles of morality on which to base the choice besides categorical imperative. Assume that a person who believes s/he is acting from duty as the universal law suggested, it is possible that this person believes ‘false’ universal moral law. CI actually an imperative cannot tell what is moral or not because it doesn't really tell us what actions to perform.
Kant offers that his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals “is nothing more than the identification and corroboration of the supreme principle of morality” (4:392). He maintains that people must use “practical philosophy”, or careful reasoning, in order to delineate the precise principle of human morality, which Kant later identifies and formulates as the categorical imperative. To understand this supreme principle of morality, Kant asserts the truth in two things: there exists morality, which regulates human behaviors and signifies good actions, and that this morality can be only understood through reason. Assuming that these are both true, it is not entirely clear what the ontological relationship is between human rationality and morality—whether
Ethics is the moral principles and values that control a person’s behaviour to interpret what is wrong or right and make the right decision. An ethical dilemma is a situation that one has to make alternative choice with the principles right and wrong (Kapola， 2005). The ethical dilemma often faced by the managers. Ethical decision is a decision make by the manager that the stakeholders would accepted and help the company to get benefits. By contrast, unethical decision is a decision made by managers is unsatisfied by the stakeholders.
Whether or not an action is deemed “permissible” or “impermissible” is decided from what Kant refers to as the categorical imperative. Categorical imperative is a moral law that should be done because it is the right thing to do. And it is simply related that we do only what we can accept or will that everyone do. In other words, whatever I consider doing, it must be something that I can consistently will or accept that all others do (chapter 6, 73 ). Personal emotions should not intervene in this deciding process.
The companies’ leaders determine basic things as authority, norms and the company’s culture, which all together give the background for ethical decisionmaking. Dealing with leadership, it is important to distinguish leadership from management, Managers give order by organizing and controlling, while leaders are moral directors. They show their employees values; they inspire and motivate them or offer a direction. In this way, they also shape the ethical decision making of their employees. Hence, it is essential to form an effective ethical leadership.