Toxocariasis is a zoonosis caused by roundworms of cats and dogs, with Toxocara canis as its main representative (Fan et al., 2004). This zoonotic roundworm is not only present worldwide in its definitive host; it also occurs in different paratenic hosts which consist of other animals, including humans (Strube et al., 2013). Unembryonated eggs are passed by infected dogs into the environment during defecation. Optimal temperatures and humidity allow these eggs to embryonate, making them infectious to both final and paratenic hosts (Fan et al., 2004). Transmission to humans normally occurs through accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs from contaminated soil (Khademvatan et al., 2013), from food contaminated with eggs or from ingestion of …show more content…
Its clinical manifestations are non- specific and may vary widely from asymptomatic cases to systemic infections. In many cases, infected hosts were asymptomatic; however, it can also be clinically manifested in four forms based on organs and tissues affected, as well as their signs and symptoms. These are visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans, neurological toxocariasis, and covert toxocariasis (Despommier, 2003; Magnaval et al., 2001; Roldan et al., 2010). Furthermore, toxocariasis has also been known to cause blindness, hepatomegaly, liver necrosis, spleen enlargement, and pulmonary symptoms. It is also known to affect the neuropsychological performance and cognitive development of the infected human hosts. Toxocara eggs cannot be detected in human feces since they do not develop into adults in paratenic hosts. Definitive diagnosis is challenging since it requires direct observation of the larva in tissues. However, due to migration of larvae and their very small size, there is a difficulty in detecting larvae in human tissues (Akao and Ohta, 2007). Hence, diagnosis of the disease is largely based on clinical, epidemiological, and serological data (Bojanich et al.,
The feces of the house cat carries a parasite, T. gondii, which has affected otters from California to Hawaiian monk seals. According to Michael Grigg, chief of the molecular parasitology unit at the National Institute of Allergy and
Summary of Parasite Rex Parasite Rex is a book that follows the parasitologist, Carl Zimmer, as he journeys through Africa to examine the effects of African sleep sickness and river blind disease. It is an 8-chapter book that gives captivating insight on different parasites and their role in our world. The book is both easy to read and it easily keeps the readers interest. Parasite Rex focuses on a new life study. Even though they have been a neglected species for up until recently, and are now catching the attention of scientists.
The bacillus infects people through the bite of infected fleas and rats (“BLACK DEATH”). This was especially prominent in urban and over populated areas (“Ecology and Transmission“). When Plagues strike people and animals alike die horrifically, in turn fleas need to find other sources of food. The people living in poor conditions often get forayed by flea bites, thus infecting them (“Ecology and Transmission“). It was seldom for the Black Death to be spread from person to person.
The arrival of the Spanish was enough to overtake them. Although the Spanish had a natural immunity to some European diseases, the Aztec did not. After the Spanish had left, 90% of the Aztec were killed by a ravaging epidemic of smallpox; one of the numerous diseases the Spaniards carried. Other sources also claim diseases were caused by climate and carried by rats. While being affected by the diseases, the Aztec were not in ideal condition to tend to each other, much less fighting a bloody war.
There are many healthcare disparities involving parasitic infection. One disparity, for example, is that any one can get parasitic infection, it is so easy to be infected by a parasitic infection. Also, to really prevent one from getting a parasitic infection, they would have to be extremely cautious on the food they are eating and the water they are drinking. It is more common in regions of tropical or subtropical to avoid getting infected. We can also get infected through our pets and the disparity in this is that its hard to keep up with everything to avoid getting infected with parasitic
When the Spanish returned, the Aztec warriors overwhelmed them, killing many and causing the others to retreat. The Spaniard with smallpox was killed, and his body was taken. The warrior that took his body also got infected. Smallpox rapidly spread among the population. Aztecs were unknown to this disease, and their bodies had no resistance towards it.
Cooking the meat thoroughly or freezing them before cooking can also be another appropriate measure which can be used in preventing the spread of roundworms. The meat has to be cooked very well and this can lead to the reduction of the roundworms in the body. The children have to be kept away from the pet feces because that can be a sure way of obtaining roundworms. The pets can be dewormed in order to avoid spreading of the worms through the children.
The bite, however, is not the cause of the infection. While the bug is feeding, feces are dropped near the bite wound. The parasite, T. cruzi, then enters the body. It then multiplies within the cells of the body until the cells burst and release the parasites into the blood stream. Other ways it can be spread: • Blood transfusion from an infected person.
One example of an infection that can severely affect a brain is Toxoplasma gondii. The effects of this infection can include flu-like symptoms, but the effects can also be as severe as damaging the brain, eyes, and other organs (Toxoplasmosis Frequently Asked Questions). It is known that this infection in rats can ultimately control the rats mind and force these rats to be devoured by cats. It is possible, however unlikely, that a virus similar to that of Toxoplasma gondii can develop and mutate into a much more severe virus that could turn the human race into
Heartworm is a serious and potentially fatal disease that can be easily contracted by dogs if they’re not adequately protected. The veterinarians and professional staff at Cerbat Cliffs Animal Hospital wants to ensure that dog owners in Kingman, AZ and the surrounding areas are well aware of the risks posed by heartworm. That way, they can make preventative efforts to protect their dogs from contracting the disease in the first place. Before preventative heartworm medication can be administered, however, it’s important to first test for the disease. Dogs under seven months can be put on a heartworm preventative without having a test, but dogs over that age need to be tested prior to administering a preventative.
The disease is believed to date back to the 3rd century BCE. (Center of Disease Control, n.d.) And only had its first analysis made in the 4th century CE which is near the end of the Aztecs and was only eradicated (not cured) in 1975 after several failed attempts. This shows that the disease could have been fairly mysterious to the Aztecs considering the first analysis was made about the time they ended in a country that would have had much more advanced technology in comparison to the Aztec’s. It also tells us that even if the Aztecs managed to figure out what was causing the suffering to their population they would have no means of stopping
Worksheet 6 (Part2) Microbiology In section 2 of worksheet 6 you will be asked to answer a series of short answer, critical thinking and case study questions. Please consider each question carefully and then answer in your own words. Below is the rubric that will be used to evaluate your answers.
Ringworm is the most common form of fungal infection in the world. It is an extremely contagious skin infection. There was not even any documentation of this until the 1920 's. It is theorized that American soldiers brought it to the United States after World War I from Europe. When you hear the term Ringworm, you might think that an actual worm is involved with the infection, but this is not the case. Ringworm is a fungal infection that sometimes leaves a circle-like appearance.