The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
Application: 1. Find the area under the standard normal curve between z = 0 and z = 1.65. Answer: The value 1.65 may be written as 1.6 to .05, and by locating 1.6 under the column labeled z in the standard normal distribution table (Appendix 2) and then moving to the right of 1.6 until you come under the .05 column, you find the area .450 . This area is expressed as 2. Find the area under the standard normal curve between z = -1.65 and z = 0.
Malate dehydrogenase: Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme in the citric acid cycle that catalyzes the conversion of malate into oxaloacetate by using NAD+ and vice versa and this is a reversible reaction. Malate dehydrogenase is not to be confused with malic enzyme, both are different enzymes malic enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of malate to pyruvate and producing NADPH. Malate dehydrogenase is also involved in gluconeogenesis, in which the synthesis of glucose from smaller molecules. Pyruvate in the mitochondria is based upon pyruvate carboxylase to form oxaloacetate, a citric acid cycle intermediate. The malate dehydrogenase reduces it to malate, and it then traverses the inner mitochondrial membrane to get the oxaloacetate out
Catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide, binding onto it and breaking it down into the less toxic water and oxygen. The equation for this reaction is the following: 2 H2O2 = 2 H20 + 2 O2 This experiment will use 1% catalase solution and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, both diluted into water so the reaction slows down. Temperature will be controlled in this experiment to change the reaction speed of the enzyme and the substrate, this is what the experiment is looking at. The effect of the temperature will be determined by how much gas is released in two minutes, which will change the pressure inside the test tube and will be measured by a gas
For example, the malate can be transported into the mitochondria via the malate shuttle and re-enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Then again, cytosolic malate can be oxidized to oxaloacetate, which can be converted to aspartate or glucose [Jones et.al 2000]. Step 5: Hydrolysis of arginine to form ornithine and urea Enzyme Arginase is required in this step. The arginine is hydrolyzed to generate the urea and to change the ornithine. It occurs in liver cells cytosol.
However, the almost linear promoting effects of DME addition were found in propane and n-butane ignition delays [23, 25]. This is mainly due to that the reactivity of methane is much lower relative to that of DME. Therefore, even with a small amount of DME addition, the ignition was strongly promoted by the decomposition of DME accompanied by the rapid build-up of free radicals, thus lead to the nonlinear promoting effect on methane ignition [21, 22]. However, for the higher order alkanes such as propane and butane, the reactivity of which are higher and the ignition delay times are much shorter relative to methane. Moreover, in the high temperature oxidation of methane, the rate of the governing reaction CH4 + O2 CH3 + HO2 is much slower than of the similar reactions of the higher order alkanes .
Catalyse Enzyme Experiment. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions which go on inside living things. Without them reactions would be so slow that life would grind to halt. These are examples that can decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide.
Figure 15: First order plot for Optimized formula Higuchi model: In this model, graph is plotted between cumulative percent drug released Vs square root of time. Regression coefficient and slope values are calculated and interpreted. The regression coefficient value of this plot was found to be 0.972 and the slope was found to be 20.39 (figure 16). Figure 16: Higuchi plot for Optimized formula Koresmeyer peppas model: In this model, graph is plotted between log cumulative percent drug released Vs log time. Regression coefficient and slope values are calculated and interpreted.
Arsenic should have five dots on its electron dot structure because it has five electrons in its outermost shell. 11. There are two reasons why nonmetals have higher ionization energy than alkali metals. The first reason is that the alkali metals have a larger atomic size than the nonmetals, so they have more trouble attracting electrons. The second reason is that the nonmetals have smaller atomic sizes making it easy to attract electrons but difficult to pull them away.
1.1 Abstract The purpose of quantitative analysis of protein using a spectrophotometer is to measure the concentration of proteins in a given sample. The experiment is conducted by laboratory method (Biuret Test) and using spectrophotometer to analyze the absorbance of reactants at 540 nm, hence determining the concentration of the proteins in a given sample. The purpose of stopped enzyme assay to study B-galactosidase is to determine the effect of temperature and concentrations of substrate on enzyme activity. B-galactosidase breaks down the disaccharide lactose into simple sugars glucose and galactose. However, glucose is a colorless compound hence it has to be substituted with a compound that is detectable by a visible color change.