The mass flow rates at hot and cold end outlets are measured by rotameter. The temperature of pressurized air at the inlet and cold and hot outlets were measured by use of digital thermometer with precision tolerance and obtained temperatures values have been converted into kelvins. Temperature probes are placed into hole, which was drilled at the center of the vortex tube and 10 mm away from the cold and the hot outlets. The cavities between the probes and the hole were filled in order to prevent the leakage. A conical valve has been mounted on the hot outlet of the tube in order to adjust the mass flow rate of the hot air.
Fractional distillation produces the same result as a series of simple distillations, which yield a more pure product after each consecutive distillation. In fractional distillation, a second condenser is added between the round bottom flask and the second condenser, and is used as a fractionating column in order to create a temperature gradient. The temperature is highest at the bottom of the column, where it is in contact with the round bottom flask, and lowest at the top of the column. As the vapors rise through the column, the vapors for the liquid with higher boiling condense as the temperature drops, and fall back into the boiling flask. The vapors from the liquid with the lower boiling point pass into the second condenser, and are condensed and collected in a flask or other vessel.
Recycled propane stream and fresh feed propane are vaporized and raised to the reaction temperature. The reactor operates at high pressure. At the compressor the discharge is cooled, dried and sent to the low temperature recovery section. Thereafter it is sent to a pressure swing adsorption unit to purify the hydrogen stream. Liquids from the low temperature recovery section and the flash drum are to a distillation or MTBE synthesis unit for product recovery.
The reactions are exothermic, so large amount of heat energies are generated. Then cold charge materials like DRI or scrap is added to the furnace to utilize this enormous heat energy and thus to avoid overheating of the bath. After completion of the decarburization process, the top lance is moved away and the electrodes are brought into operating positions. In the arcing phase, the remaining solid charge material like scrap or DRI is fed into the bath to achieve the tapping weight. The temperature of the bath is adjusted and the heat is tapped into
Question#1: What is distillation? Answer: “A separation technique in which two or more substances are separated into their components from their mixture (liquid or vapour mixture) by the means of heat removal or heat addition is called distillation1.” In liquid mixture distillation, the mixture is heated and less boiling point liquid began to evaporate. Vapors of that liquid then condensed to get purified liquid. Purified liquid is then called condensate. Repetition of distillation on collected liquid is called double distillation, this can be done just to enhance the purity of collected liquid2.
Chemical reactions transform bond energy into heat or work. Enthalpy of reaction (Hrxn) is the term used for the change in heat as a reaction is carried out at constant pressure. It is a state function as it only depends on the final and initial conditions during the change of state. If Hrxn < 0, the system releases heat and is therefore an exothermic reaction. On the other hand, if Hrxn > 0, the system absorbs heat.
The fire is done by cooling the air temperature of the ceiling-level, reducing the fire heat release rate and pre-wetting surrounding combustibles. On the other hand, the design intent of ESFR sprinkler systems is to extinguish the fire. This is accomplished by discharging higher water flows directly to the fire. This increased flow will penetrates the rising hot gases and attacks onto the fuel
The particles depart the air stream to the drainage in the separation unit. The dehumidified air is then directed to the divergent conduit to recover some of its initial pressure and temperature. The diagram of the three parts in assembled view is illustrated in figure
Cooling process: By cooling down the material through some chemical reactions in which energy absorbing (endothermic) processes triggered by additives and/or the chemical release of water cool the substrate to a temperature below that required for sustaining the combustion process, e.g. magnesium hydroxide [26,13,20]. Coating process: By forming a protective layer or coating that prevents or shields the underlying combustible layer of material with a solid or gaseous protective layer from heat and oxygen necessary for the combustion process, e.g. phosphorous and boron compounds [26,13,20]. Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g.
High-pressure misting system pump is an electricity-run cooling system that creates a cooling effect when water passes through thin pumps under high pressure. It creates a large volume of cool quality mists in the atmosphere. When millions of tiny droplets are spread in the atmosphere, it creates excessive cooling effect to beat the scorching heat thus maintaining a balance. In technical parlance, high-pressure misting system pump are an essential equipment as they help move air or liquid from one place to another. They are very designed for commercial, industrial, and domestic purposes.