Individual who have immunocompromised show early display of the herpes zoster infection for those who are not immunocompromised. The management of HIV/AIDS or other immunocompromising diseases may also contribute to herpes zoster development. For example, one of the most powerful risk factors for herpes zoster infection is the use of systemic corticosteroids, which are part of the standard management of most autoimmune diseases. Despite the increased risk of herpes zoster associated with immunosuppression, 70% to 80% of patients hospitalized for this condition are
A lot of scholars agree that this disease is caused by the proliferation of HIV-1 (McGuire, 2003). As highlighted by McGuire (2003), the replication of this viral strain in brain macrophages leads to a high viral burden within the brain. These viruses cause ADC. This hypothesis has been substantiated by studies that have positively correlated HIV encephalopathy with ADC (John Hopkins University, 2018). Some scholars, however, argue that ADC is caused by a macrophage-initiated cascade of events that leads to the degeneration and dysfunction of the brain (McGuire, 2003).
As the primary varicella infection, or chickenpox, resolves, the virus travers through sensory neurological tract of the affected area. Eventually, the virus resides in the dorsal root ganglion of the affected dermatome in latent form. Reactivation of the latent viral infection manifests as Herpes zoster, or what commonly known as shingles(1).Clinically, shingles is described as multi vesicular eruptive rash that follows a single or multiple adjacent dermatomes in distribution.Often accompanied with or preceded by acute pain and itchiness. Complication of the infection may arise
My assigned book is the hot zone by Richard Preston, the book demonstrates about a highly contagious and lethal virus that is known as “Ebola virus” that is divided into two types the Ebola Zaire and the Ebola Sudan. The writer also mentioned about other filo viruses such as the Marburg virus and rabies. The hot zone book illustrates the origins of the virus and how it started to disperse from one person to another or from a region to another. And how epidemiologists, scientists and doctors discovered about the origin, structure, the effect on the body, symptoms that it can cause, treatment or cure and the nature of the pathogen. As well as several cases of different patients that had an experience of the disease without knowing the actual
Dehydration: Diarrhea and vomiting can lead to dehydration, a condition whereby there is significant depletion of bodily fluids. Diarrhea is a common complication of measles infection, Measles virus infects epithelial linings of the cavities of different organ systems; reticuloendothelial cells, white blood cells, macrophages, monocytes and T-lymphocytes which are all critical for our body defense mechanism.
Influenza as well as STDs were common, including Syphilis. According to Lia Ramsey in her article, Templateeliz, “Epidemic diseases became more common in the sixteenth century.” They included typhus, smallpox, diphtheria, and measles. There were epidemics of plague in children along with measles, smallpox, scarlet fever. Chicken pox, and diphtheria. No matter how common or widespread each type of disease was, each one affected a human life, and affected the population of Elizabethan
AD is associated with severe itching and eczematous lesions that are reoccurring (Weidinger & Novak, 2016). Roughly one fifth of populations in developed countries are affected by AD (Weidinger & Novak, 2016). Lesions in AD can appear anywhere on the body (Weidinger & Novak, 2016). AD occurs due to an imbalance between T-helper-2 response and IgE responses to allergens, which become exaggerated (Weidinger & Novak, 2016). Patients with AD are at risk for skin infections due cracking in the skin from the dryness and
Researchers believe that multiple blows to the head may dislodge the tau protein from the cell structure and cause it to form in clumps inside nerve cells. This may damage or ultimately kill nerve cells, and spread as the disease progresses; one of the advanced stages is that brain shrinkage may occur. Researchers are working to refine brain scan techniques to identify Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy tau deposits in living brains. They are also looking for clues in people’s blood or cerebrospinal fluid that would allow them diagnose the disease before death. A large-scale study found that concussions in adolescents can increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis later on in life.
It enters the body through the lungs and is carried to the internal organs. Then, the skin is infected and boils and rashes will appear all over. Smallpox is spread through contact between people and saliva when talking, coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread rapidly when the boils on the skin burst, leading to the smallpox DNA going everywhere.The highly infectious disease ravaged and plagued across the globe, decimating a large number of the population. In the 18th century, it had an astonishing mortality rate of 90% in the United States.
It is highly contagious and can be transferred person to person via close contact such as touching something that is contaminated and proceeding to touch one’s eyes, nose or mouth. It can also be transmitted by respiratory secretions or droplet exposure ("Interim Guidance", 2010). People who are at high risk of getting infected by the H1N1 influenza virus include children under five years old, people 65 and older, people who have chronic illnesses, pregnant women and people who have compromised immune systems (Krause & Poceta, 2017). The symptoms of the H1N1 virus are very similar to symptoms of regular influenza and include nausea and vomiting, fever, diarrhea, coughing, sore throat and