Victim witness programs are used by the government in order to provide support and assistance to those who fall victim to a crime. According to Victim Witness Program, the primary goals of such programs, include but are not limited to, encouraging victims to participate in any parole and supervised release processes of their offender, notify and facilitate victims in participation of any hearing or release dates in regards to their offender, provide options for supportive services, and advocate for crime victims (2015, para.1). The organization under which the victim-witness program is located is under a system, which has many internal constituencies, thus creating competing and conflicting purposes. The goals of the victim-witness program are quite simple and seek out to give the victim the right to be represented during the processing of the offender, however, given the multiple roles the court, for example, must serve, the goals of the victim-witness program can be both complex and conflicting. A complex goal, according to Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas, is “A situation in which an organization faces many competing and conflicting …show more content…
For example, the parole and supervised release committee must take into consideration the victims opinion when considering a offenders release, thus limiting the boards ability to use it’s discretion on what they may be a more appropriate release date. The goals of the victim-witness program could also potentially limit the prosecutions ability to prosecute the offender for a longer sentence. For example, a victim could potentially want to forgive the offender for the harm they have been cause, therefore, seeking for a more lenient sentence then the prosecution may be seeking, thus constricting the prosecutions
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I will be discussing the key facts and critical issues presented in various roles/goals within the United States (Schmalleger & Smykla, 2015). The The Various roles/goals of Sentencing within the United States. In a narrative format, discuss the key facts and critical issues presented. The various goals of criminal sentencing today are revenge, retribution, just deserts, deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation or reformation, and restoration (Schmalleger & Smykla, 2015). The first is revenge.
For most people, only the person involved in the encounter are labeled as victims. The pain comes in from the view of one who feels the full effects of the ordeal. However, there is more to the scope of victims than the person directly involved in the crime. Debra narrates how much her family participates in events following up her kidnap and her husband’s murder. Family members would like to see the perpetrator get the death penalty.
The Texas prison systems have many pros and cons that can be easily observed. A beneficial thing about the prison system is that they provide an added level of protection for the public. Every single day there are a variety amounts of criminals who are incarcerated to not only serve their time but to also keep them all under one roof so that they cause no harm to the public. The crime rate in Texas has risen up; from un-resolved homicides to sexual assaults; therefore, when they are incarcerated they will be locked up and the public’s safety will be at ease. Another factor that contributes to the pros of the Texas prison system is the satisfaction that the interests of the victim’s family and members of the public are happy with the result
Over the past 40 years U.S. incarceration has grown at an extraordinary rate, with the United States’ prison population increasing from 320,000 inmates in 1980 to nearly 2.3 million inmates in 2013. The growth in prison population is in part due to society’s shift toward tough on crime policies including determinate sentencing, truth-in-sentencing laws, and mandatory minimums. These tough on crime policies resulted in more individuals committing less serious crimes being sentenced to serve time and longer prison sentences. The 1970s-1980s: The War on Drugs and Changes in Sentencing Policy Incarceration rates did rise above 140 persons imprisoned per 100,000 of the population until the mid 1970s.
America’s prosecutors where practicable be willing participants in addressing issues of reducing recidivism and ensuring the safety of victims’ and the community. NDAA implemented the following policies position on Prisoner Reentry July 17, 2005 (Association, 2005) Victim reentry issue- the primary focus should be on providing a safe environment for the victims of crime and the community, Victims should be informed about the status of their offenders’, location, notification of projected release date, the person (s) or agency (ies) to contact if questions or concerns arise. How to apply for a protective order application and issuance. Available mental health services.
This process will ensure that each offender receives the proper punishment and that the community is satisfied with the decision. The offender-based models, retributive and utilitarian, does not help the victim recover. Restorative justice is designed
Criminal Justice Psychologist The psychologist is a vital asset to the criminal justice system. The psychologist can examine victims, police officials and various witnesses thus making them ethically obligated to make the right decisions and evaluations. This essay will discuss the roles of psychologist as they work within the criminal justice system. I will Identify and describe the psychologists’ roles within the criminal justice system as it pertains to the applied scientist, the basic scientist, the policy evaluator, and the advocate.
Today our justice system has a multitude of options when dealing with those who are convicted of offenses. However, many argue that retributive justice is the only real justice there is. This is mainly because its advantage is that it gives criminals the appropriate punishment that they deserve. The goals of this approach are clear and direct. In his book The Little Book of Restorative Justice, Zehr Howard (2002), illustrates that the central focus of retributive justice is offenders getting what they deserve (p. 30).
In the case of Tara Brown’s murder, various groups of individuals are affected. As well as maintaining principles of fair punishment and deterrence, the criminal justice system has to consider perceptions of the victim’s family (secondary victim), the community’s demand for crime prevention, and the offender’s rights to a fair court hearing. The most likely outcome is imprisonment for Lionel John Patea due to committing an indictable offence. It is important to note that if this was only a case of domestic abuse without murder, it would utilise more time, effort and expenses to come to a resolution. This is due to the different circumstances and degree of abuse that the judge has to assess.
The main parts of a criminal justice system can best be described as a discretionary model, because so many steps are taken from the stages of committing a crime to being prosecuted and possibly release from correctional institutions in the future. Each one of these steps have a serious deciding elements in them that play a role in the prosecution of a criminal. As stated in the text book “no two cases are alike, and no two defendants are alike,” (Barkan, 17). Because of the uniqueness of each case and the people involved in it a system must be put in place to insure that at every stage of the criminal justice system there is a set of questions and decisions that are being made effectively and properly.
In the criminal justice system, the corrections component is also responsible for the rehabilitation of the convicted individual. It is their duty to attempt to make the defendant a productive member of society once again. Based on the individual’s behavior while incarcerated, the court and corrections officials may decide to place them on parole, which ensures that the individual will comply with the rules of society once they are fully released from the system. The criminal justice system is an essential role in the organizational structure of not only the United States but also in countries around the world. If there were no criminal justice system to administer punishment, the world would be unstructured, disorganized, unjustified, cruel, and not to mention a chaotic place for it citizens.
Examining Problems and Their Solutions in The Parole System The United States of America contains the third largest population in the world, which contradicts the fact that the United States has the largest prison population in the world (Aliprandini, and Finley). The fact that their prison population is so large alludes to the reason they would have a strong parole system. Due to contrary belief, this is not the case.
Do victim precipitation theories mean victim blaming? Explain and evaluate. 1.0 Introduction of victim precipitation Victim precipitation theories generally involve an explanation of how an individual’s behavior may contribute to his or her own victimization. In future the victim precipitation is behavior by a victim that initiates subsequent behavior of the victimizer and the degree to which victim is responsible for own victimization Early attempts at studying victim behavior involved the development of typologies that allowed victimol-ogists to determine who was most responsible for the criminal incident offender or victim. For instance, Wolfgang first introduced the formal concept of victim precipitation in his seminal work on homicide in 1958 when he argued that, in some instances, the victim may initiate the behavior of the victimizer .