During the seventeenth and eighteenth century, there was a change in the thought process of mankind. Two prominent and opposing viewpoints came in the form of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Thomas Hobbes was a man who influenced society’s thoughts on government. John Locke, on the other hand, had a heavy and lasting influence in the shaping of modern politics, the nature of individual rights, and the views on human nature. Hobbes and Locke both derived two states of nature that though they had some similarities were polar opposites.
In the present assignment, an attempt has been made to evaluate the influence of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke on the modern society. At the same time, the connection between the writings of these philosophers and the things that are actually present has also been explored. Both the philosophers were very enlightened thinkers of the 17th century. At the same time, both of them have very strong views regarding human nature and also the role that displayed by the government in the lives of the people. In this regard, Hobbes believed that by their nature, people were selfish but the perspective of Locke was different.
How long did it take for the human race to start realizing things around them? The Enlightenment was a time period where people began to question absolute monarchy and that’s where reason and scientific methods were applied to all aspects of life during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Enlightenment thinkers called philosophes were scholars who flaunted the ideas of the Enlightenment. The American Revolution (1775-1783) and the French Revolution (1789-1815) were direct causes of the Enlightenment. The ideas of John Locke, Voltaire, Adam Smith, and Mary Wollstonecraft all played important roles in the revolutions.
Enlightenment was created by the English philosopher John Locke. The ideas that were influenced by enlightenment were life, liberty, and property. This also gave to the idea of natural right. Enlightenment influenced the way people finally realized that divine right wasn’t right and start to doubt it. Throughout time enlightenment has influenced a lot of important events in history.
The eighteenth century remained an exceptional time for mankind; the movement called the “Enlightenment” period not only provided extreme changes in the scientific aspects of life, but in the cultural and industrial ones too. In his article for the New York Times, David Bornstein describes the Enlightenment as “a period in history when fanciful thinking gave way to a more rational understanding of cause and effect” (Bornstein). In other words, reasoning and analytic thinking administered to anything ranging from new creativity in literature to new advances in science and inventions in technology. Although looking back, one would assume that these advances remain clear and inevitable, however not everyone during the Enlightenment appeared to share its views. The upper class of Europeans actually initiated a revolution to protest the logic of the eighteenth century and instead spent their time on the development of the future as the primary aspects of life.
Big changes requires big ideas. During the 18th century in Europe well educated people called philosophes explored ideas about, how to change the society in which they lived. Relying on reason and belief that natural laws held key to understanding human behavior, the philosophes latched onto one big idea also known as freedom. They believed that allowing individuals more freedom and reducing government control would make society better. But what was the central idea of thinkers who led the intellectual revolution of the late 17th and 18th centuries?
Existentialism as a philosophy has modern roots in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At the time of its development the movement was not readily accepted in academia. It would not be until the twentieth century until it would find greater merit. According to research submitted by Nobin Narzary in his thesis The Rise of Existentialism, the unique history of the twentieth century including world wars, scientific breakthroughs, and the devaluation of human life provided adequate ground for existentialism to take hold [ CITATION Nob12 l 1033 ]. The tragedy of world warfare and loss of human life inspired philosophical debate as to the nature of human existence and its relation to common principals of divinity and human destiny.
(1) “The movement known as the Enlightenment included writers living at different times in carious countries. Its early exponents, the philosophes, popularized the rationalism and scientific ideas of the 17th century. They exposed contemporary social and political abuses and argued that reform was necessary and possible.” (The Heritage of World Civilizations). This led to tremendous rethinking of religious and moral matters as well as scientific theory.
The Enlightenment period (very often called the Age of Reason) which started in the 17th century, put a huge emphasis on reasoning and humans as individuals. At the same time it touched at the core of the life based on faith and tradition. The ideas developed by thinkers of the time strongly affected future intellectual, political and economic development of Western Europe, influencing also the character of modern societies. During the 16th century society faced many turbulence in different parts of Western Europe. Something what started as a dispute over the political and economic issues between king and nobility in England, and resulted in the Civil war, provided a fertile ground for thinkers who first started to question the world around them.