Molecule Essays

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    Hydrate Lab

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    Due to water’s polar structure, ions in some compounds attract and form bonds with water molecules, forming hydrates. A hydrate is a salt that has water molecules trapped within its crystals. Every hydrate has a certain number of water molecules weakly bonded to the salt as follows: salt • number of water molecules Anhydrous salts are salts that can form hydrates but which have had all the water driven off, usually by heat. By heating the Copper (II) sulphate hydrate until its color changes from

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    Essay On Aromaticity

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    act as a framework to generate planar molecules. A molecule is only considered aromatic due to the fact that it is cyclic, that it follows the Huckel’s Rule and lastly that each element must have a p-orbital. Antioxidants play and important role in health. It can be defined as a group of organic chemicals and have been used to hinder the process of oxidative degradation of food products, fats and oils and polymers. Antioxidant can be defined as forms of molecules that help to maintain the body’s chemical

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    Introduction to Stoichiometry What does stoichiometry mean? Before trying to understand what stoichiometry means, you first need to know what chemistry deals with. Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with matter and all the change in composition it undergoes. Now, along the long line of the history of chemistry, scientists have used symbols, formulas, and equations to indicate the elements present, the relative amounts of elements, and the variety of combinations of atoms during a chemical

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    Mariel Beauroyre 9-B A chemical bond is form with the joining of two or more atoms (when two atoms are joined they form molecules and compounds.) Which are being held together by the attraction (force attraction) of atoms through sharing as well as exchanging electrons. Chemical bonds are found in molecules, crystals, or in solid metals. They also organized the atoms in order structures. But why are they important you may ask? They’re important because every material or substance in the world

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    Problem: How does the temperature of water used to dissolve an Alka-Seltzer tablet affect the amount of time it would take for the tablet to completely dissolve? An Alka-Seltzer tablet is a medicine tablet made with baking soda used as a pain reliever for “headaches, body aches, pain, heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach” (Alka-Seltzer Tablets). It is put into water, left to dissolve and then consumed. When an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dropped into h20, a chemical reaction immediately takes

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    we look at a chemical bond and categorise it according to where the valence electrons are found in the molecules. As the valence electrons determine the chemical properties of the molecule, based on the properties of the molecule we can determine the type of bonding it falls under. The bond is formed by the electrostatic force of attraction between either the electrons or nuclei of the molecules. There are two categories of chemical bonds, Primary bonds and Secondary Bonds. Primary bonding has to

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    non-covalent interaction between a halogen X and a negative site B (e.g., Lewis base). The halogen, X, is usually part of an R-X molecule where R can be another halogen, an organic or an inorganic electron-donating-group. Halogen bonding (XB) is in some ways analogous to hydrogen bonding (HB). In the latter, a hydrogen atom is shared between an atom, group or molecule that “donates” and another that “accepts” it.[1-3] In halogen bonding, it is a halogen atom X that is shared between a donor R and

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    Cycloodiline Lab Report

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    Synthesis, molecular modeling and bio-evaluation of cycloalkyl fused 2-aminopyrimidines as antitubercular & antidiabetic agents 1. Introduction: o The target name and type: The target in this paper is the mycobacterial di-hydro folate reductase, alpha-glocosidase and glycogen phosphorylase The type of the targets is enzymes. o Diseases that associated with the target: The diseases that associated with the target are diabetes and tuberculosis. o Biological activity of the compounds: Minimum inhibitory

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    been reported by Johnson1. In this paper, the author discussed that the hydrogen birnessite contained structural water and either hydroxyl hydronium (H3O+), or both. Interlayered H2O molecules inside the birnessite play an important role to the structure. The interlayer H2O is strongly bound to the interlayer molecules, like Na+, K+ or H+. Typically, the H-Bir could be synthesized vial by a co-precipitation method developed by Golden2. The reactant were MnCl2, HCl (pH =2), NaOH, and O2. The XRD for

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    water molecules captured by the ice per second goes down, therefore the rate of freezing goes down. The melting occurs faster than the freezing because it is not affected by the salt. Other foreign materials can also melt ice. Salt is commonly used on roads because it is cheap and easy to obtain. Sugar (C12H22O11) is known as sucrose, a combination of fructose and glucose. It is a carbohydrate that contains 12 atoms of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, and 11 atoms of oxygen. Sugar molecules arrange

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    Percentage of Oxygen in a Compound: Stoichiometry and Catalysis Jarling Perez Carl Eguez CHM1045L, U43 October 30,2015 Table of Contents: Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………3 Procedure…………………………………………………………………………………………4 Results.……………………………………………………………………………………………5 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………………8 References…………………………………………………………………………………………9 Introduction: Stoichiometry refers to the quantitative relation between reactants and products during

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    called as conformational isomers and sometimes they frequently interconverting rapidly at room temperature. Hydrocarbon alkanes usually present conformation isomerism due to the presence of C-C bonds. C-C σ bonds rotate to give different shapes to a molecule like eclipsed form, staggered and anti form, and staggered and gauche form. In conformations of non-cyclic alkanes, names are given to two distinct conformations, eclipsed conformation and staggered conformation. C-H bonds on each carbon fully overlap

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    Linus Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon on February 28, 1901. His father, Herman, was a pharmacist and his mother, Lucy, was the daughter of a pharmacist. Shortly after Linus was born the family moved to the town of Condon, and Linus started attending the local schools. Shortly after Herman died of an ulcer, the family had to move back to Portland and live in poverty. As a result of his family’s poverty, Linus had to work various jobs to help the family and eventually he had to drop out of high

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    Potato Osmosis Lab

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    Osmosis in potatoes Aim of the laboratory: The aim of this lab is to analyse the effect that the concentration change of sucrose has on the potatoes' osmosis rate. This can be investigated by using potatoes of the same shape, size and length that are placed in different beakers with different concentrations of sucrose. The potatoes must be weighed prior to as well as posterior to the placement in the beakers to measure the difference of the size, length, and eventually shape of the potato subsequent

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    When a vast number of water molecules are mixing freely in the liquid form, the positive poles are attracted to the negative poles by what amounts to static electricity. This electrostatic attraction is termed a hydrogen bond. It is about 20 times weaker than the H – O bonds within any one water molecule, but still gives rise to considerable, transient adhesion, which packs the water molecules closely together in the liquid state. In contrast, as the temperature falls below about 4 ° C and ice begins

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    yields (1). Often times there are no side reactions that occur during the Diels-Alder reactions. Mechanism reacting 1,3-butadiene with ethane: Reactions are classified as monomolecular, bimolecular or even trimolecular based on the number of molecules that are joined together. The monomolecular mechanism is a

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    Stereoisomers Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the arrangement of the atoms in space. The consideration of such spatial aspects of molecular structure is known as stereochemistry. Stereoisomers can be classified into two general categories: • Conformational isomers Isomers that differ in relative position of some of the atoms in the molecule in 3D-space due to the rotation about formally single bonds (sigma bonds). •

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    D2 Unit 8 Assignment

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    The identity operation, E, leaves the molecule unchanged. The C2 axis lies along the z-axis. The C2 operation transforms the dichloromethane molecule as so. Carrying out two consecutive C2 operations is equivalent to the identity transformation. There are two reflection planes in the molecule; both contain the rotation axis. One plane is the plane of the page containing the ClCCl plane. We will label this plane σ′(yz). The second plane is perpendicular to the plane of the page; we will label it σ(xz)

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    increasing focus of research and technological movement, where its key viewpoints span surface chemistry, chemical physics, and cellular biology. Hydrophobic particles have a tendency to be non-polar and, accordingly, incline toward other neutral molecule and non-polar solvents. Hydrophobic atoms in water frequently bunch together, shaping micelles. Water on hydrophobic surfaces will display a high contact point. Superhydrophobic surfaces are exceptionally hydrophobic, i.e., greatly hard to wet. The

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    Hydrogen Sulfide undergoes covalent bonding – where two or more non-metal atoms are held together by one or more shared pairs of valence electrons. The atoms forming a covalent bond must have a relatively equal attraction for electrons (electronegativity). Hydrogen has an electronegativity of 2.2 and sulfur of 2.58. Covalent bonds tend to also have low melting and boiling points due to weak intermolecular forces which break down quite easily (BBC, 2014). Substances that are bonded covalently are

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