Hence I’d like to devise two questions out of the quote: “Is history a lie?” and “Then what is the degree of truth in history?” “Is history a lie?” Let’s take a look at why Voltaire saw history as a lie. Having already summarized his views on the society, it is easy to extract the disgrace that he associated with the bourgeoisie. He believed that those who had the power over the general population also had the power to influence how the past was interpreted to be written as history. Something that George Orwell stated as: “Those who control the present, control the past and those who control the past control the future.” Voltaire considered that the dominant ideology greatly influenced the writing of
This scene is also important mostly where it illustrates why King Henry V was so depressed and melancholy because he was disgusted about the sin and devious act his father committed in order to achieve the crown. Henry feels ashamed and is willing to do as much as possible to prove to the people that he is not like his father in his ruling and shameful ways but he is worthy enough to be wearing the crown. Henry V disguise through the use of a cloak also help to showcase the differences in the class positions in the society. For instance, the people they speak to King Henry V who is disguised very straightforward and open but if they saw the King in real they would have been more hesitant to say what they wanted. This third poster is very symbolic in the play since it helps us to distinguish the type of respect and authority the subjects have for the King as opposed to a common man.
By the end of 18th century and the beginning of 19th century, two process of punishment began to disappear: torture as a public spectacle and physical pain. Foucault attributes to the process of ‘’Humanization’’ as the reason behind such disappearance. The change came because public punishment became to be seen as unfair as the crime itself. As a result, Punishment now becomes hidden from the public’s view. Foucault argues that no one (unlike in ancient regime where the sovereign/Royalty had the full power of punishing the culprit) is made responsible for delivering punishment because ‘’the apportioning of blame is redistributed’’.
Thomas Jefferson and Niccolo Machiavelli both believe that the actions of the people shape the characteristics of the ruler and define the type of authority that will be held towards the people. Machiavelli, the first great political philosopher of the Renaissance, argues all men are untrustworthy due to their selfish, self-interested and impulsive ways of life in his writing, The Morals of the Prince, and therefore, to keep the people under control the ruler must be prepared to be cruel and instill fear among the people. Opposing Machiavelli is Jefferson. In The Declaration of Independence Jefferson believes people can be trusted since they have the ability to make their own decisions. Whereas Machiavelli supports tyranny, Jefferson believes
Thoreau felt that the government was unfair to people of color, and had an unjust system that taxed its people for greed. Thoreau’s philosophy of civil disobedience inspired political actions during the fight for civil rights. How would Henry David Thoreau be looked at by the American people in the 21st Century? Based on Thoreau 's outlook from “Walden” and his life from “Civil Disobedience” and being a part of the transcendentalism movement, would Thoreau become a radical activist, or a political hero during this time period? An activist is a person who campaigns for some kind of social change.
The first subset is Reactionary Socialism. Reactionary Socialists include the Feudal Socialists, the Petty-Bourgeois Socialists, and the German, or "True" Socialists; all of these groups fight against the rise of the bourgeoisie and modern Industry, without realizing the historical process the bourgeoisie represent. Feudal Socialists were French and English aristocrats who wrote against modern bourgeois society. However, their chief complaint about the bourgeois was that it creates a revolutionary proletariat that will uproot the old order of society. Thus, they objected to the bourgeoisie because they were a threat to their way of life.
However, like many great people, their good deeds shadow their bad deeds. The article is a collection of what philosophy was about and also shows the pros and cons of his thoughts of Enlightenment. The body tries to balance the contrasting elements in Voltaire’s philosophy in contrast, source 2 which only focuses on Voltaire’s originality. For example the source (3) mentions how he enlightened many about the feudal system that oppressed them, and how there should be more interest in the people rather than the monarchy. The author of the source further cites a contrasting view by mentioning that Voltaire believed that the black race was inferior to the white race.
The conference resulted in a reduction of Germany’s military and steep war reparations to countries affected by the war. This cutback in Germany’s capabilities angered German fascists, as it countered their belief in the supreme power of the nation-state. These angry feelings were echoed in Mein Kampf: “Wasn't the worst kind of pacifism injected into the heart of our people at a time when the rest of the world was preparing to throttle Germany, slowly but surely?” Hitler sensed betrayal in that the world tried to instill peace in Germany by robbing them of what they valued, namely their military power. He also attacked the League of Nations: “...they thought they could entrust their future to a League of Nations…Did it not ridicule morality and ethics as backward and petty-bourgeois, until our people finally became 'modern'? He sensed that the league was trying to alter German culture by modernizing it to fit in with the rest of the world.
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) was a British thinker, well known for his political philosophy. Working in the heart of the political power, he has been the witness of the deteriorating relations between the King and the Parliament of Great Britain in the seventeenth century, which has influenced his work. While the conflict degenerated into a civil war, Hobbes went into exile in Paris. There, he wrote de Cive, and Leviathan, considered as his major works . In both book, Hobbes deals with the establishment of a State to end the state of nature, a state of war of all against all.
One reason of the development and rise of satire in this period could be the advent of the Age of Enlightment. But it was not the only one, all satire, constructive and destructive, arises because of the sense of dissatisfaction; after the restoration of Charles II to the throne of England, puritan morality and religiosity were dismissed as standards of excellence giving their place to “fashion and genteel taste”, awaking puritan fanatics, religious enemies and political enemies of monarchy against the king. It is when these people started to criticized the monarchy and the actual society through satire, because it presents evidence in an indirect way drawing conclusions inside the reader’s head. One of the authors who used irony in his plays was Jonathan Swift, he is actually known as one of the most famous satirists during the Restoration period. Through his works, such as “A tale of a Tub”, he satirizes several aspects of the English society.