A Summary Of Vinegar

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Vinegar has been used for cooking and in the household and different industries because of its slightly acidic nature for many centuries. This is one of food and beer, wine, bread and fermented dairy products is the result of fermentation by microorganisms and for thousands of years. It is a mixture of acetic acid and water.
The fermentation is usually done by acetic acid bacteria of the genus Acetobacter, alcohol in a variety of sources (eg, apple cider, wine, potatoes, fermented cereals). Acetobacter bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods. They are naturally present in environments where alcohol is produced and can be isolated from damaged fruit, apple cider, etc.

Microbes have been used to produce products for thousands of years. Even
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The bacteria form a film on the surface, called mother of vinegar, and can be used as a fermentation starter culture in liquid acetic fresh alcohol.
Fermentation of acetic acid requires oxygenation. If left to room temperature containing alcohol solution with Acetobacter will be converted into vinegar in months. The industrial process can be completed in a few hours since the air is mixed and bubbled through the solution.
Bacteria that can directly convert sugars to acetic acid in an anaerobic fermentation include Clostridium and Acetobacterium but they can not tolerate the acetic acid concentrations greater than a few percent. The product made from these bacteria should be focused while oxidative fermentation by Acetobacter can produce up to 20% acetic acid.

Fast Technique: R. and R. schutzenbachi curum is used in this process. Acetic bacteria forms a thin silky film. Wine, grapes, grape fruit, malt, corn syrups, can be used as raw material. A generator is commonly used in the rapid production of
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The new wine is added up through a funnel without disturbing film on the surface, otherwise the production will slow.
Orleans process is a slow process used in industries. It uses the principle Barrel fermentation where barrels with drilled holes for ventilation are used. The starter is added from the previous batch. Quarter-thirds drawn at 3 months intervals and replaced with fresh cider. This results in vinegar "aged" excellent.

For clarification, the resulting vinegar is filtered. Nowadays cross-flow ultrafiltration techniques and parallel flow are used.
Aroma compounds, acid and sugar through the membrane, but not the protein and pectin causing turbidity.
If the turbidity is high, it is first treated with gelatin and settling is conducted.
Filtered vinegar is pasteurized at 60-65 C for 30 minutes and then cooled to 33-38 C and bottled.
Most countries only use glass bottles for bottling.

Factors that affect the growth of bacteria of the acetic acid include ethanol, oxygen, temperature, nutrients, and acetic acid.
There are tolerances with ethanol and acetic acid concentration by

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