More than 85% of the population live in rural areas. Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries in the world with 47% of the population live in poverty and only 36 % of people above 15 years are literate. Ethiopia is a federal democratic republic with tree brances of governance and administration. The administrative structure comprises of nine regions, 80 zones, 551 districts and about 12 000 villages. The two cities Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa have separate administrations under the federal government.
Introduction South America is world’s fourth largest continent. It has an area of 17,840,000 km2 that covers one-eighth of the land area on Earth. South America is home to about 423 million people. There are 12 sovereign nations and other territories in the continent. South America contains natural wonders and unique cultures.
Agriculture and allied activities accounts for about 15% of India’s GDP offering employment to two-thirds of India’s population (OECD, 2011). India is the second largest producer of agricultural products and accounts for about 7.68% of total global agricultural output. Agriculture exports of India during the year 2013 stood above $39 billion which made India the sixth largest net exporter of the world (FAS, USDA). Indian economy dwells in the agricultural sector as it contributes to about one-third of the country’s national income. Agricultural sector apart from meeting the food requirements of the people, also supplies the raw materials demanded for industrial growth.
Close to 90% of the total agricultural production depends on hand held tools (FAO, 2005). The level of agricultural mechanization in Uganda is low compared to other Sub- Saharan African (SSA) countries. This has resulted in low yields, low household incomes, food insecurity, and poverty among others (Makosa and Takayanagi, 2014). Animal Draught Technology (ADT) was introduced to Uganda in 1909 in the then Bukedi (Tororo) district. The rapid adoption of ADT was related to expansion of cotton growing to areas were livestock is kept.
However, civil conflicts have contributed to an even poorer state. The lack of natural resources available in Somalia has made the country very reliant upon their farm and livestock. Farmers that own camels, cattle, sheep and goats make up the upper class of Somalia. Concerns of animal health have left the sale of livestock very limited with certain bans in place. Somalia has an estimated population of 10 million people with his capital Mogadishu with around 2 million.
82% of the camel population of the world (15.4 million) is found in the African continent. The camel population of Ethiopia has been estimated to be 2.3 million heads which places 3rd in the world next to Somalia and Sudan (Tezera et al., 2010). They contribute significantly to the livelihood of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists living in the fragile environments of deserts of Africa and Asia as sources of milk, meat, transportation, leather and wool (Gwida et al., 2012).
Chapter - I INTRODUCTION India is the seventh largest country by area and the second most populated country in the world with a population of 1,210.6 million (623.1 million males and 587.5 million females). Seventy per cent of the country's population is reliant on agriculture and related activities. The agriculture sector offers a livelihood to about 64 per cent of the labor. This force contributes nearly 26 per cent of GDP and accounts for about 18 per cent share of the total value of the country’s exports. The net sown area is 141.5 million ha.
In 2008 almost 557.5 thousand tons production of dates was recorded (Al-Hooti et al., 2002). It was reported that 5000 date palm cultivars are found worldwide; out of this 325 cultivars are in Pakistan (Jamil et al., 2010). Date production is about 7.5 million tonnes of fruit worldwide and Pakistan contributes 72 thousand tonnes (FAO, 2011). Composition
Therefore, the country’s exports are highly concentrated in agricultural commodities while the share of nonagricultural products in total merchandise exports is almost insignificant. Concentration on few trading partners resulted in demand constraint for the nation’s primary exports and could be one reason for the poor performance of the sector and hence of the economy. So, this research proposal seeks to evaluate the effects of agricultural exports for economic growth in Ethiopia. To investigate the relationship between agricultural export and economic growth and also the contribution of agricultural exports to economic growth are issues that will be examining in this research
Women agricultural workers, although they represent a big proportion of all women workers, continue to receive lower wages than men. In India, about 76.6 per cent of the entire female workforce is engaged in agricultural operations, and only 54.6 per cent of the entire male workforce is engaged in agricultural operations. Women play a significant and diverse role in agriculture and contribute to agriculture more than men. Though women agricultural workers account for 39.2 per cent in India their overall empowerment status is low. Keywords: Agriculture, Women, Land holdings, INTRODUCTION Women play very important role in agriculture and allied fields.