In an ever-changing society is common that children grow up in a bilingual family environment. Bilingualism has been a very fascinating and controversial topic in the field of speech perception. In the very beginnings, the lines of research defended that bilingualism creates confusion, which leads to academic
Bilingualism does not only refer to knowing phonological, lexical and syntactical aspects of language. Instead, it also demands being aware of sociolinguistic aspects of language use such as regional and social dialect. Hence, being bilingual is a matter of being communicatively able in two or more languages, being comfortable using one or the other and being able to code switch properly, according to the interlocutor and context of communication. Causes of bilingualism might also lead biliteracy. Nowadays, many people are raised or immersed in societies which provide a language different from their home language.
Their arguments for the cognitive advantages of bilingualism were well-justified. They stated that bilinguals usually do better in multitasking than heir monolingual counterparts, and they are good at attentional control as they are used to be aware of which language should they use in different contexts as well as their choice of words. That is to say that bilinguals are able to slip in and out of both languages smoothly and select the phrases which can most express their thoughts. They further explained that bilinguals can think ore comprehensively, pick things up faster than monolinguals and understand complex ideas better by exposure to both their first and second language. Their arguments were supported by a study funded in part by the US National Institutes of Health.
In contemporary times, because of globalization and the possibility of long-distance communication and travel, learning more than one language became more of a necessity than just a way of expanding one’s knowledge. It is particularly mandatory for the ones who migrate from their mother land. Research focused on the lives of bilingual persons have highlighted the fact that multilingualism has a great influence on the person’s life and feelings. One article that presents the link between language and self is the one written by Anna Wierzbicka in 2004, Preface: Bilingual Lives, Bilingual Experience, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. Summarizing the article, language is not just a number of words, put together by certain rules,
The results indicated that in spite of being at a lower vocabulary level in the beginning, bilinguals showed more advanced processing of verbal material. They were more advantageous in comparison to monolingual children in terms of the readiness to impute and reorganize structures Ben-Zeev (1977). However, the study required further work to determine whether the effects of bilingualism on cognition found in the study was situation-specific or could be generalized to other situations.She adds that the process of second-language acquisition can be clarified by differentiating between two dimensions of proficiency, the attribute-based and input-based aspects of proficiency. The cognitive and personality variables are examples of attributes that influence proficiency in acquiring a second language. The input-based aspects of proficiency are related to the quality and quantity of L2’s input from the environment.
Literature 1 (Journal article) Bilingualism in the Early Years: What the Science Says Krista Byers-Heinlein & Casey Lew-Williams Learning Landscapes Overview: The journal mainly focus on explaining questions regarding outcomes of bilingualism and appropriate methods to teach bilingual children which helps readers to approach bilingualism from the individual development aspect and compare bilingualism with monolingualism from micro aspect. Summary: In the journal, confusion on different languages shown by children is regarded as code-mixing and is stated that is a normal process of language development which is due to the limited vocabularies bilingual children have. Besides, it is suggested that high-quality, high-quantity, and balanced exposure
Quebec have been promoting bilingualism, and trying to use both language French and English in the province. The definition of “bilingual” is vague. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010), bilingual is a person who can speak two languages equally well. This does not make clear how much you need to speak to be a bilingual. It has no specific borderline.
“Languages do not exclude each other, but rather intersect with each other in many different ways.” (Mikhal Bakhtin, 291). Comparing the sonnets “Overheard at Al-Azhar” and “Conversaytion” by Joshua Ip, with the film 881 by Royston Tan, the reader and viewer are made aware of the shift in the use of language with relation to Singapore’s changing position, globally, culturally and socially. The changing landscape and corresponding changes in language choice suggest the importance of language as a part of cultural convention. Language as a part of culture then, arguably, explores the concept of a national identity, and of belonging. In Rubdy and McKay’s article, they argue that “language ideologies operate in powerful ways as sites of power and
Everyone knows them and/or spreads them – having internal struggles of values, multiple perceptions or personalities, “natural” translators. Bilingualism is seen by Wierzbicka as a “dynamic phenomenon which corresponds to life events of the bilingual speaker” (Preface). And she sustains this by giving examples from her own personal experiences, such as the misunderstanding with her daughter because of the word ‘angry’, how she felt confused when asked about her granddaughter or, a more common experience, to hear “an immigrant using some emotive interjections of their second language long before they have learned that language well” (Preface). Grosjean approaches this problem too and seems to have the same opinion as her - “Language transitions mirror life transitions and Grosjean points out how ‘one should be careful, therefore, not to think that the bilingual’s first language, or mother tongue, is the stronger, most fundamental language; it really depends on the individual’s language history…’ ” (Kate Hammer) He further dares to bust the myth that bilingual speakers are natural translators by explaining that a vocabulary in one language can be dominant in one domain while in another language the vocabulary is dominant in another domain – that way they are complementing each other. Also, Gresjean points out that this is the reason why bilingual people speak different languages in different situations or when talking to different
In such case, it would be sufficient to know some key phrases that are always used in a target language. Weatherford (1986) wrote that communication in a language spoken in the country one is visiting does not only assist with everyday problems, but also brings more pleasure and enhances understanding of people and of the country. Moreover, knowing a respective language provides opportunities for communication with locals who can share immensely exciting information about history and culture. Such communication and travelling experience usually is more advantageous for the traveler who wants to immerse in a country and feel its true spirit. Moreover, interactions with many people can appear beneficial in terms of establishing valuable connections with people from other countries and making