It is estimated that rice crop provides about 19 % global calories intake. It has become third highest worldwide agricultural commodity (patel and sing, 2017). Worldwide, rice is become second major food crop in consumption as well as in production. Rice serves as high energy calorie in human diet. Mainly rice consist of 72-75 percent carbohydrates, 7 percent protein content, 4 percent phosphorous, 16-22 percent ash in rice husk.
However, in recent decades wheat has lost its reign as the world’s primary staple food, the yield weight (but not crop area covered) of maize as well as rice has overtaken that of wheat. In the golden age of genetic modification (1998) maize and rice were now genetically able to overtake wheat in terms of feeding the world. In the year 2000, just after the technological advances in the genetic modifications of maize and rice, wheat accounted for 20% on average of the worldwide calorie consumption. European countries contributed a lot to this statistic, as wheat accounted for 30% of their consumed calorie
Also, this is eaten mostly in Asian countries. Rice is important for the food supply and economy of the country (Wikipedia, 2014a). Here in the Philippines, rice is grown by planting rice seeds on hectares of land by the method of plowing usually during the start of the rainy season. Rice usually matures approximately after three to four months and can be harvested after five months from being planted (Heirloom Organics, 2014). There are different varieties of rice seeds which lead to different rice varieties.
Even with significant advancement in the plant disease control approaches, our comprehensive food supply is still susceptible to large number of pathogens and pests. These diseases of plants can significantly decrease crop yield and this impact of disease is principally severe in developing and under developing nations of the world (McDowell and Woffenden, 2003). WHEAT Wheat (Tritium Aestivum) is reckoned amongst the ‘big three’ in the cereal crops, with more than 600 million tones being produced per annum, e.g. the world total harvest in the year 2007 was about 607 million tones as compared to 652 million tones of rice and 785 million tones of maize. (Shewry, 2009) Investigation of the genetic pool of wheat and its relative plants has shown
In 2008 almost 557.5 thousand tons production of dates was recorded (Al-Hooti et al., 2002). It was reported that 5000 date palm cultivars are found worldwide; out of this 325 cultivars are in Pakistan (Jamil et al., 2010). Date production is about 7.5 million tonnes of fruit worldwide and Pakistan contributes 72 thousand tonnes (FAO, 2011). Composition
1997).It has emerged as one of the fastest growing agricultural sub-sector and has moved from a ceremonial to a staple food in many Nigerian homes within the last two decades, such that some families cannot do without rice in a day. Nwachukwu (2008) reported that as a staple food in Nigeria, rice accounts for 40 percent of the diet of the country’s population but production has been growing at a slow rate relative to consumption within the last years. Nigeria ranked second largest importer of rice in the world after Indonesia. If the present import scenario persists, huge import bill would be expended on rice. The future may even be gloomier, considering the rice prices in the world market which have risen by as much as 40 percent are predicted to rise further.
Chapter 1: The Rice Industry in the Philippines Product Description and Service Cost The Philippines is a country known for being rich in agricultural businesses. Rice being known as the statement food in the country, is as its peak of demand. Most Filipino dish is never complete if rice would not be present. Every day, all kinds of people both coming from high and low profile purchase such. According to Merriam Webster’s dictionary- “the starchy seeds of an annual southeast Asian cereal grass (Oryza sativa) that are cooked and used for food; also : this cereal grass that is widely cultivated in warm climates for its seeds and by-products”.
(2011) in his study the problems faced by the poultry industry in Pakistan. Data were collected from 1000 respondents by using simple random techniques. A structured questionnaire was developed for the reliability and validity of data. It was revealed that the parent stock layer is increasing at rate of 120percent every year, in some years like 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2010 where growth is almost 200percent. On the contrary, a consistent growth rate of 135percent was seen in case of broiler parent stock.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Barley Grain Barley (Hordeum vulgare.L.) is cereal wholegrain that gives nutlike taste and chewy consistency after being boiled. Barley is a whole grain food and generally available in pearled, hulled and flaked form. It was one of the first cultivated grains in history and today, barley has remained one of the most widely consumed grains in the entire world (Ware, 2016). Barley originated in Ethiopia and Southeast Asia, where it has been cultivated for more than 10,000 years (The world’s healthiest foods, 2016).
In 1992 rice is also distributed in other countries. During that year the country has a total population of 65.34 million and rice utilization per capita of 87.13 kilograms per capita per year or 238.71 grams per capita per day is about 5.7 million metric tons of rice. Farmers are producing about 5.97 million metric tons, while 35, 101 metric tons are exported (Virola, 2011). Today, as Suministrado (n.d.) mentioned, only 18 million tons of rice are produced in the year 2013 and the country is already a net rice importer. Hindrances to this are higher cost of farm inputs, greater incidence of pests and diseases, environmental problems and the lack of access to farming technologies.