Therapy dogs can also impact people with mental health disorders. (4,5,6) One way they can do this is by helping people with depression. (4,5) It is believed that when someone pets an animal, “feel good neurotransmitters” called endorphins are released which can be extremely helpful and beneficial for those going through depression. (5) Another way that depression can be improved by therapy dogs is that patients often forget about their own problems when in the presence of a dog because their attention is drawn to it and its needs. (5) Hormones such as serotonin, prolactin, and oxytocin is also released by interacting with an animal which can play a major part in elevating moods.
His theory is helpful for child development and adults too. The five Erikson’s stages of development are trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, competency vs. inferiority and the last one is identity vs. role confusion. Freud and Erik’s theories have some similarities and differences in some stages of development. In the first stage of Freud’s theory he says oral stage is the weaning process where the child must become less independent upon caretakers. At the stage of 1st year Eric says it’s the stage of trust vs. mistrust.
Psychologists nowadays research this through the use of theories from Piaget and Kohlberg to name a few. Piaget’s theory of moral development aimed to connect children’s cognitive development to their moral judgment. Kohlberg expanded on Piaget’s ideas and went on to name what he believes to be the 3 levels of morality. Gilligan’s criticism of Kohlberg’s theory shines a light on the fact that Kohlberg only used men as subjects for his study, this led to the study being biased. Gold et al.
People learn from seeing the behaviour, attitudes and the result of those actions. Social Learning Theory describes human behaviours as a persistent mutual communication between the behaviour, cognitive and environment effects. Social Learning Theory increases the knowledge of the aspect of correct role modeling for children. The Social Learning Theory is a theory based on crime and criminality of individuals explaining why individuals behave in a deviant manner (Government of Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth services). Bandura’s theory concentrates on how individuals view the behaviour of others and immediately learn and develop new conducts, the Social Learning Theory demonstrates reasons for people imitating those behaviours.
another criticism referring specifically to the goal orientation section of the inner containments, it does not consider the idea of people achieving legitimate goals by illegitimate means, or ‘innovating’ which may act as a pull rather than a control, with reference to Merton’s strain theory (Agnew and Kaufman, 2010). Again to doubt the reliability of reckless’ containment theory, self-concept has proved to be such a difficult subject to measure, which made the link between self-concept and delinquency was problematic to confirm by follow up research (Walsh, 2001). Regardless of the criticisms containment theory has received, it was an important influence on later theories and a key inspiration to the likes of David Matza and Travis
Models are an important source for an individual to learn new things and behaviors. He also stated that in social learning theory, there are 3 systems that affect and control behavior. First, antecedent inducements will influence the time and response of a behavior greatly. Next, response feedback influences will also impact the occurrence of such behavior in the future. Lastly, it stressed that cognitive functions are important as well.
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 2.2.1 Social learning theory This a theory postulated by Albert Bandura, the theory suggests that much learning takes place through observing the behaviors of others. This theory acknowledges that human beings are capable of cognition or thinking and that they can benefit from observation and experience. Social learning theory recognizes that much of human learning takes place through watching other people model various behaviors. Social learning focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. It considers how people learn from one another, encompassing such concepts as observational learning, imitation and modelling (McLeod, 2011).
Cognitive development covers the development of a child’s thinking, and includes sensory development, concept formation, problem solving, memory and concentration, the development of creativity and imagination. Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky are two of the main psychologists whose work in this area has been the foundation of much research in cognitive psychology. A common understanding between the two rest on the idea that cognitive development in children occurs through stages, nonetheless, their recognition of these stages vary. Jean Piaget and his contributions to cognitive development was one of the major breakthroughs in psychology. He was progressively inspired by behaviourisms and started to research and examine the subject even further.
Especially social gamification affordances were a good indicator and a strong influence on almost all antecedents. Consequently, the importance of adding social gamification elements was shown. Even more, social gamifications influence we-intention directly, which shows how important those features are to the goal of playing together. The strength of this influence may be owed to the hedonic nature of gamification (Heathwood, 2006). Social gamification influences all social influence constructs (evaluative, cognitive and affective social identity, group norm), showing that the use of social gamification affordances has an impact on how strong social influence is.
In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life. In contrast, social reinforcement is the actual initiation of the anticipated behavior through the influence of material and valuable rewards that is present in the society. The final concept of social learning theory may motivate individuals to commit violations or deviant acts in the same direction of definitions. Differential reinforcement discussed the influence of rewards and punishments in developing and learning deviant behaviors