Mussolini once stated that “The Socialists ask what is our program? Our program is to smash the skulls of the Socialists.” With the particular declaration, Benito Mussolini made it clear that his regime was mainly built upon violence and terror of people and classes that were inferior (Laqueur, 1996). The term of Italian Fascism is generally difficult to determine as there is the problem concerning the differentiation between the two different stages both of the movement and of the regime. (Payne, 1980). As Payne stated in his book “Fascism: Comparison and Definition” (1980), Fascism in general may be considered the most doubtful contemporary term in politics. This is the case as the word “fascism” does not have an ‘implicit political reference’ as it happens regarding democracy, communism, socialism and liberalism. When taking into consideration the phenomenon of Fascism in Italy it is …show more content…
It is necessary to contemplate the environment in and the conditions under which Mussolini was raised in order to be able to justify his desire of constructing the political movement of fascism. Benito Mussolini was born in 1883 in Predappio of Emilia-Romagna. There has been a discussion whether his place of birth had an impact on the formation of his personality (Whittam, 1995). In his book “Fascist Italy” John Whittam presents the ‘formative influences’ in Mussolini’s early life. These appear to be his father, Alessandro Mussolini, his schooling and his trips to Switzerland and to the Austrian Trentino. More specifically, his father was the one to trigger Mussolini’s immense interest towards politics and precisely, politics of violence. During his attendance in a school located in Faenza, young Benito observed and experienced the concept of social divisions as the less fortunate ate their meal on a separate table from the rest and their food was inferior in comparison to the richer
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Fascism and communism are both types of totalitarian style governments that had a great influence on the 20th century. Communism involved the emphasis on the common good by seizing private property and distributing it among the masses in order to create state-owned property, whereas fascism involved the complete rule of a dictator by forcibly suppressing the opposition with an emphasis on nationalism and sometimes racism. The most popular example of communism was the Soviet Union, but many smaller countries possessed the Soviet Union’s communist influence. The two most popular examples of fascist style governments include Hitler’s Nazism in Germany, which had an emphasis on racism, and Mussolini’s fascist state in Italy. Although many countries pursued communist style governments, fascism had a greater impact and
The cartoon displayed the nationalist ideology of Germany and their desire to pin the blame on the people they deemed inferior or outsiders such as Jewish people. Document A, Benito Mussolini’s The Definition of Fascism written in 1932 described Fascism from the eyes of a Fascist leader. The document laid out the positives of Fascism explained that Fascism was the best government for the people. Mussolini wanted to make the Mediterranean an Italian lake and unite all Italian people. These nationalist sentiments garnered him significant support and gave rise to his fascist regime.
He believed that only a strong leader like himself could defeat conflicts caused by other political parties (especially communists/socialists) and post-war problems (World War I). Mussolini’s first call to action was creating a group called the “Blackshirts” that would carry out beatings against communist leaders and throwing them out of office. People of all different backgrounds joined including teachers, business people, and store owners (Document 5). Mussolini constantly told his people that he was going to restore Italy back to its glorious Roman Empire era. He backed up his sayings by invading Ethiopia.
Q7. The Fascist nations were extremely powerful during their time, along with the strong leadership they provided. Fascism is a political movement which promotes extreme forms of militarism and nationalism. It includes the denial of individual rights and dictatorial one-party rule. Fascism has several characteristics; for example, social, chief examples, basic principles, political, economic, and cultural characteristics.
In 1919, Benito Mussolini described fascism as “A movement that would strike against the backwardness of the right and the destructiveness of the left.” That “Fascism sitting on the right, could also have sat on the mountain of the center… These words in any case do not have a fixed and unchanged: they do have a variable subject to location, time and spirit. We don’t give a damn about these empty terminologies and we despise those who are terrorized by these words.” Fascism came into prominence in the early 20th-century Europe. It originated in Italy during World War I.
Have you ever heard the saying that Fascism and Communism are two sides of the same coin? These ideologies flourished during the first half of the 20th century and influenced several European states which followed the two ideologies. Fascism was imposed in order to promote powerful and permanent nationalism within a totalitarian state led by a dictator which is ready to engage in conflict internally and with its neighbors. The doctrine of Fascism was drafted in 1919 by Giovanni Gentile and adopted by Mussolini (Mussolini is considered the founder of fascism). Gentile stated, “Everything for the state; nothing against the state” (Heywood, Politics 48).
376) This description of Fascism indicates a government that is involved in the lives of its citizens to an extreme degree. By illustrating the government as a “powerful form of personality”, Mussolini alludes to the Fascist characteristic of organicism, where the state is seen as an organic whole being. Mussolini continues his
When the modern capitalist society has emerged, capitalism has massively impacted on many social aspects. The system had led to the dissolution and to an end of the Feudal system during the Middle Ages. There are many political thoughts, which consisted of significant frameworks for reforming and making some new changes to the society. This essay will mainly focus on two main political ideologies and identify the differences between these two houses, which are Marx and Mussolini. First, the German thinker, Marx, and a letter called “ Manifesto of the Communist Party”, bring about the concept of communism that was being used in many areas back in the olden days.
Giovanni Gentile, the father of Italian fascism, suggest that the totalitarian state looks to "total representation of the nation and total guidance of national goals" (Appelrouth and Edles, 2012). He indicates that while this control is most obvious and pronounced under a dictatorship, it is not entirely absent in democratic
In his adulthood, small elites dominated politics, leaving the working class out. This gave rise to socialist parties, such as the Italian Socialist Party. Mussolini came to be a prominent supporter and journalist for this party. By 1911 Benito Mussolini was a prominent leader of the socialist movement’s revolutionary wing, which called for the overthrow of the government to make a working-class dictatorship. However, Mussolini was an unusual socialist.
Everyone has a place or part in the government and operate together, as a whole, “We are nothing. Mankind is all” (Rand 21). Likewise, in a society with a fascist government, individuality is prohibited, contrary ideas are censored and nationalism is emphasized. Benito Mussolini was the leader in Italy during its reign under fascism. Soon after declaring himself dictator, a strict press censorship was instituted.
Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany were similar in that both were dictatorships. Both Mussolini and Hitler came to power through legal means and believed that people were divided into either inferior or superior races. For example, Hitler was obsessed with the Aryan race and called for the genocide of Jews during WWII. In addition, both Mussolini and Hitler favored the wealthy, believed that an individual was meaningless and must submit to the decisions of their leaders, and aimed at self-sufficiency so that each could survive entirely without international trade. Furthermore, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy “had aimed for prestige and power for their countries, and brought instead humiliation and destruction” (Tarr, R.,
Fascism is ideology which often uses totalitarianism and nationalism methods. The fascist leaders made people are the subject to the government, and limit the independency of the people, in order to gain the better for the nation. This is somehow similar to absolutism of western Europe during 17th and 18th century. Absolutism had given the monarch absolute power to rule over people, while fascism had given the leader and the nation the power to rule over the people of the state. Moreover, fascism had denied the democratic parliament system, and had only allowed the “elite” to rule over the country.
Furthermore, labor strikes in the country helped redistribute labor and wealth (Duggan, 2013). Despite those successes, the Socialists were unable to seize power in Italy. As a result, the Socialist Party split into factions, including the Communist Party. The Fascists, led by Mussolini, used the threat of communist revolution to take over Italian politics. Mussolini had socialist political origins and had a history as a journalist, editor, and socialist agitator (Duggan, 2013).
During the inter-war period (1920-1939), totalitarian ideas, Fascism and Nazism developed rapidly in Italy and Germany respectively. Fascism comes from an ancient Latin word fasces, which is referred to an axe tied with rods. It represents a symbol of authority in ancient Rome and became the symbol of Fascist party which rose in power in Italy in 1922. While Nazism rose in Germany in 1933, whose name came from the Nazi party, National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei). They threatened world peace and became an important factor of the outbreak of the WW2.