Essay To what extent were the economic policies and rise to power of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler similar? Benito Mussolini was the Prime Minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943. Adolf Hitler was the furher of Germany from 1933 until 1945. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler’s economic policies and their rise to power were to a great extent similar. Both men had a strong desire to make their respective countries great.
I- Early life Impassioned socialist In order to promote socialism, Benito Mussolini moved to Switzerland in 1902 where he gained recognition for his charismatic character and his talents in rhetoric. However, the Swiss authorities caught him engaging in political demonstrations, which led him to be expelled from the country. Mussolini moved back to Italy in 1904, where he carried on with his socialist agenda promotion and activism and later, served time in prison. After his release, he was appointed editor of Avanti, the organization’s newspaper and, as a result, had a larger platform to spread his agenda. The Break with Socialism and Rise to Power After opposing Italy joining World War I at first, Mussolini realized that his country could
Fascism was one of the three totalitarian regimes of the 20th century along with Nazism and Communism. In Italy, the political raise of fascism started in 1919 when Benito Mussolini, a former journalist of the magazine L’Avanti, founded the movement of the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, which was “a curious blend of rabid nationalism and revolutionary syndicalism” (Kitchen 135). In 1921, Mussolini abandoned the socialist elements of the 1919 program to form a conservative and nationalist political party, the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista). Even though the party attracted always more people, mainly in rural areas and among the bourgeoisies, Mussolini did not gain power democratically gaining the majority of votes in national
The first reason why Italy should entered WWII is Benito Mussolini, who just came to power and became the leader of Italy, decided to turn Italy into a new empire like Roman. This is important because Mussolini had his own army and had the ability to attack other countries. He was also the leader of Italy who had right to order all the Italy soldiers to fight. “Following the war, in which he served as a rifleman, Mussolini decided his destiny was to rule Italy as a modern Caesar and re-create the Roman Empire. He forged the paramilitary Fascist movement in 1919-1921, using it to march on Rome, become prime minister, and then to seize dictatorial power (1925-1926).
Benito Mussolini, the now deceased dictator of Italy from 1925 to 1943, was the glimmering hope that the people of Italy looked to during their time of need. Some considered him a leader, a dictator, and even a God. Not many people know how he attained this power or what went wrong that led to his demise. Yet, he was able to leave his mark on Italy throughout his reign and even some time after. Mussolini’s rise and fall to power as dictator of Italy is attributed to his control over the people, him maintaining a good image towards the people and foreign countries, his economic decisions, and his inability to make effective decisions.
First, Mussolini and his adherents needed a revolution. They were absolutely opposed only to liberal democracy. Willing to use any means for their purpose, they borrowed from contradictory political doctrines to form a new, sufficiently revolutionary ideology. Thus, Fascism was somehow able to simultaneously appeal to two groups located at opposite ends of the political spectrum, the conservatives and the syndicalists. Mussolini tried to downplay the ideological ambiguity of Fascism, arguing that labels like “conservative” and “liberal” were mere empty terminologies.
When Mussolini was captured, political power over Italy was restored to the royal family heir, Victor Emmanuel III. His first action was to appoint a man named Marshal Pietro Badoglio as Prime Minister, who then pledged cooperation with the allied forces and promised to continue fighting in the war. The fascist government party was dismissed and many political activists who had been imprisoned under Mussolini’s rule were granted amnesty and released. Although fascism no longer had a hold on Italy, the repercussions of Mussolini’s government and the physical and social destruction left behind from the war left Italy in a state of serious depression. Social conditions in this post-war Italy were almost unbearable.
By harnessing and capitalizing on their anger, he eventually gained a solid control of Italy. From the early 1920s until his ousting in 1943, Mussolini promoted national values and stressed the importance of a strong military, claiming to be working in the interest of restoring former Italian glory with the Roman Empire as an ideal. He proved his severity on the matter to the Italian people and the rest of the world by demanding enrollment of all citizens into the gargantuan military that would occupy Ethiopia, Albania, and Libya within five years (1935-1940). Mussolini’s strategic use of militarism to enforce national superiority and strength resulted in Italy’s emergence as a large threat to neighboring countries. Nationalistic, militaristic, and fascist values that Mussolini enforced upon Italy where what eventually led to their joining the axis powers and going to war against the allied powers.
He gained position as leader and used his power to his advantage. He may not have been crowned thane of Italy, but he tried to regain Italy for the prestige and power through extreme military measures. He became allies with Hitler in 1936-1939 during the Spanish Civil War. He attempted conquering the world by joining forces with Germany in World War II, but failed to do so. On the same note, Macbeth also made the biggest mistake by committing the most horrid crime of all; he had Macduff’s family slaughtered.
During the inter-war period (1920-1939), totalitarian ideas, Fascism and Nazism developed rapidly in Italy and Germany respectively. Fascism comes from an ancient Latin word fasces, which is referred to an axe tied with rods. It represents a symbol of authority in ancient Rome and became the symbol of Fascist party which rose in power in Italy in 1922. While Nazism rose in Germany in 1933, whose name came from the Nazi party, National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei). They threatened world peace and became an important factor of the outbreak of the WW2.
Mussolini organised that the March on Rome because it was necessary due to the fact that a purley parliamentary settle to the catastrophe in Italy that had grown would be opposing to the attentiveness of Fascism. The first phase consisted of starting at dawn on the 28th of October, on this day Blackshirts of hundreds of cities would strike, they would have to take over the post offices, police headquarters, railroad stations, and military barracks. The second phase, consisted of the men who were available, to be dispatched to their assigned attack centers and to wait for orders to head to rome. These men would be Blackshirts who are Fascists and they would march along Tyrrhenian Sea, going towards Rome, this is significant because the Blackshirts would show Mussolini as gaining power since people would make his event a reality. The prime minister at the time of Italy which was Luigi Facta he did nothing to stop these phases while they were occuring, which led to King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy to see the Fascists as a resolution due to the fact that Mussolini pledged to conserve the monarchy, leading to Mussolini gaining more power in Italy due to the March on Rome not being stopped.
Thus, fascism was founded in a war torn Italy, during the First World War by Benito Mussolini, the father of Fascism to seize control over Italy and take charge to improve the dithering conditions. Fascism didn’t stay in Italy alone, it spread to other countries
From getting kicked out of the Socialist party to being the absolute dictator of Italy in just a few years. The techniques he used were quite brutal, but efficient. With the help of his militia the Blackshirts, he put down any opposition and gained support by shutting down peasant uprisings and taking the side of the middle class land owners. Him and his Blackshirts marched on Rome, claiming power of the important buildings of the capital. He publicly supported the king which led to Mussolini being appointed prime minister when the democracy fell apart, which gave him the ability to pass laws which gave the Fascists more and more power as the time grew on.
III. Attention Getter: “I do not see, in the complex of Fascist doctrines-which tend to affirm the principles of order, authority, and discipline- anything that is contrary to Catholic teachings.” – Pope Pius XI IV. Relevance Link- The relationship between Italy’s Fascist dictatorship and the Holy See is the most notable factor in studying the history of mid-twentieth century Italy and has ramifications in today’s world, most notably due to the Lateran Accords, which established an independent and sovereign Vatican City among other things. V. Main Points- First I will speak about how their relationship came about, then the creation of the Vatican City as a nation state and the entrenchment of the fascist regime, and finally the historical significance of these events. Body: I.
Beginning in Italy in the interwar period of the early 20th century, fascist movements were to spread across the continent, and the ideology to date marks for most the extreme right of the political spectrum. A form of radical authoritarianism, fascism was characterized by extreme nationalism, economic syndicalism and public military agency. Fascists identify World War I as a revolution that transformed fascism into a viable political ideology, and the essay will analyse each cause independently to trace the movement of political thought towards the extreme right. This essay will show you that the intellectual roots of fascist theory were closely linked with nationalism and the themes of the fin de siècle political culture, as well as the rise
In the political and social doctrine “The Ideology of Twentieth Century” the fascist leader Benito Mussolini expresses his view about the aims of the Fascist government with impressive but indirect way: “The Fascist State express the will to exercise power and command. Here the Roman tradition is embodied in a conception of strength. Imperial power, as understood by the fascist doctrine, is not only territorial, or military, or commercial; it is also spiritual and ethical. An imperial nation, that is to say, a nation which directly or indirectly is the leader of others, can exist without the need of conquering a single mile of territory…” (Griffin, 1998, p. 256). It is very difficult to define clearly what were the exact aims of the Mussolini’s fascist government, and it is difficult to speak about all these aims in one
This was a positive step as it helped people get around Rome much faster, and the other improvement he made was the electrician of the Railways. I believe that helping to build these roads and the railways made the different sections of Italy unite and come together as one country. Rome being the city center and mussolini was able to include the farm lands which contributed to a much more unified working nation. I think with Mussolini military background he could tell that if the farm lands were not connected then the city would suffer without food, and there would be a lack of agriculture from Italy. With the railroads and roads there was an increase of jobs available to the people.
Benito Mussolini used fascism to rule, Joseph Stalin use communism, and Adolf Hitler used Nazi ideology after World War I to gain control. To begin with, Fascism is a term that describes a political party who wants to gain power, usually through dictatorship or totalitarianism, they tend to serve economic and social regimentation usually by using force. Benito Mussolini was a socialist, he also was a fascist leader of the National Fascist party in the year of 1922 to 1943. Mussolini use fascism to gain power and built a first totalitarian state with the Fascist party and he gained his supporters by combining the into combat squads that wore black shirts, they rejected the democratic process and used violence instead. It seemed like Mussolini was desperate for power in any way and used violence to gain control.
Benito Mussolini was the founder of Fascism and the ruler of Italy for 21 years. Italians perceived him as a wise hero initially as middle and upper-class citizens were impatient with Italy’s parliamentary government and wanted a powerful leader that would set up orders, however, on his death decades later, the great mass of Italian people didn’t take it as a loss nor greeted it with regret. He was born in Northern Italy to a blacksmith father, Alessandro Mussolini and religious mother and a Catholic elementary school teacher, Rosa Mussolini. He belonged to a poor family who lived in a crowded two-bedroom apartment. He grew up in an environment that often talked about nationalism, socialism, and republicanism.