The routes of administration can be generally classified according to the location of action was. Each route has their own specific purpose, advantages and disadvantages. Common examples of administration include intravenous, oral and transdermal administration. a) Intravenous administration Intravenous administration involved injection which was directly into the vein. For this administration, the size of the carrier must be small to serve a better therapeutic efficiency.
This catalyzed the reaction which contributed to the oxidized form of naphthol which in turn formed purple precipitate which helped in determining the location of the human serum albumin. Therefore, absence of purple bands on the nitrocellulose membrane (Figure 3) proved that protein was not fully transferred to the nitrocellulose membrane. Lack of transfer of protein to the nitrocellulose membrane maybe due to the inaccurate rolling of the rod to collect the proteins or maybe the washings were done too many
They noted that bacterial cytoplasm is crowded, poly-disperse and in the absence of known motors, diffusion-reliant for metabolic activities. Yet, how metabolism affects the cytoplasm remained untested. Their results suggest that the cytoplasm appears like a simple viscous fluid to particles below a certain size scale (< 30nm), and like a glass-forming liquid to particles above this size. The glass-like properties include caging, dynamic heterogeneity and non-ergodicity. Under natural conditions, this behaviour might reduce diffusion of large macromolecules & hinder cellular activities, yet it does not.
known as cation-exchange or anion-exchange chromatography, depending on whether the solutes to be exchanged are positively or negatively charged. Size Exclusion Chromatography: Here the molecules are separated according to their molecular weight and it is suitable for molecules having molecular weight of 2000 Daltons or more. Largest molecules are eluted first and the smallest molecules last. Affinity Chromatography: Here the stationary phase contains specific groups of molecules which can absorb the sample if stearic and charge related conditions are satisfied d. This technique is used to isolate prooteins, enzymes as well as antibodies from m mixtures. Partition Chromatography: Here the stationary phase is a thin liquid film either adsorbed or
Metabolic engineered of biocatalyst: A solution for PLA based problems ABSTRACT Poly lactic acid(PLA) is a biodegradable polymer used in many biomedical as well as in packaging Applications. Conventionally, PLA is produced by two method which is direct condensation of lactic acid and ring opening polymerization. The polymer produced from these conventional methods produced polymer which have low molecular weight. Conventional methods of PLA production requires catalyst which makes it unfit for biomedical Applications. Newer method utilizes metabolic engineering for direct production of PLA by fermentation.
Additionally, the presence of multiple charged or uncharged side chains may be advantageous to facilitate gel formation, production of a high viscosity composition, and/or interaction between molecules in the composition and/or tissue. Low molecular weight, small chain polysaccharides require higher concentrations to produce viscous, gel-like materials, and tend to be less desirable. One of the preferred polysaccharides is hydroxypropylmethylcellulose which is preferably used in a sterile aqueous solution. As a sterile solution it may be formulated to have a molecular weight exceeding 80,000 daltons and a viscosity of at least about 4,000 centipoise. See, for example, Thomas J. Liesegang et al., "The Use of Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose in Extracapsular Cataract Extraction with Intraocular Lens Implantation", Am.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
These raw oils contains impurities that have a bad flavour or odor. Fractional distillation is used to remove or reduce impurities. Solvent recycling and solvent purification is another area where fractional distillation technology is applied. Industry and laboratories use large amount of solvents. Used solvents contain contaminants that can be removed by fractional distillation.
UF systems commonly consist of three steps: (1) A pre-concentration step achieving similar concentrations of low molecular weight components in retentate and permeate (2) A diafiltration step to purify retentate by addition of diafiltration liquid, and (3) A final concentration step to maximize the concentration of high molecular weight solutes in retentate. Literature on purification of peroxidase from Raphanus sativus is santand requires minimum number of purification steps to minimize the cost. The current study focuses on developing a purification process for radish peroxidase from the roots of Raphanus sativus. Since plant peroxidases are present in low concentration in the extract, its recovery and purification involves traditional downstream processing steps. The grinding/extraction, precipitation/concentration and different chromatographic separation techniques are the general steps involved in purification of enzymes (Fig.
Both the turbidimetric and the chromogenic methods can be used as quantitative kinetic methods simply by plotting standard curves of time vs endotoxin concentration. Spectrophotometric instruments can be used to detect changes in colour and turbidity at much lower concentration than that need to form a visible gel-clot. Doing this makes the turbidimetric and chromogenic methods much more sensitive that the gel-clot method. The sensitivity in this case is determined by the lowest concentration that is on the standard